. These changes in ripening provide fruits with delayed flesh softening and a higher sugar content, both while attached to the plant and after harvesting. These characteristics make ‘MAK-10’ useful to extend the harvesting period and the shelf life of
Gorka Perpiñá, Jaime Cebolla-Cornejo, Cristina Esteras, Antonio J. Monforte, and Belén Picó
Jinhe Bai, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Robert C. Soliva Fortuny, James P. Mattheis, Roger Stanley, Conrad Perera, and Jeffrey K. Brecht
`Gala' apples [Malus silvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] were treated with ethanol vapor (5 mL·kg-1 fruit for 24 hours at 25 °C), heat (4 days at 38 °C and >98% RH), or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; 1 or 0.625 μL·L-1 for 18 hours at 20 °C) before processing into slices, then dipped in anti-browning solutions or coatings, drained, and packaged in perforated polyethylene bags. Residual effects of pretreatments on fresh-cut slice physiological and quality attributes were investigated during storage for up to 19 days at 5.5 °C. Ethylene production was reduced by ethanol, heat, and 1-MCP pretreatments, while ethanol and heat also reduced slice respiration. Heat and 1-MCP pretreatments inhibited slice texture changes, while ethanol had no effect on instrumental texture measurements but reduced sensory firmness. Ethanol pretreatment increased the contents of ethanol and ethyl esters in slices but reduced acidity, while heat reduced both acidity and aroma volatile levels. Both ethanol and heat pretreatments led to lower sensory scores for apple flavor and ethanol-pretreated slices also received higher scores for altered flavor, although all scores were in the acceptable range. Slice acidity was best maintained by 1-MCP pretreatment. Shelf life based on appearance was 15 to 16 days for ethanol-pretreated slices and 12 days for heat-pretreated slices compared to that of control, which was 8 to 9 days, while 1-MCP pretreatment promoted decay development on the cut surface, which reduced the shelf life to 7 to 8 days. Obvious separations were determined between ethanol- and heat-pretreated slices and untreated control by canonical discriminant analysis of headspace volatile levels determined by GC and electronic nose. Therefore, pretreatments with ethanol and heat are very effective for prolonging visual shelf life at the expense of aroma quality.
Robert A. Saftner
The effects of harvest-applied coating and shrink-wrap polymeric film treatments of apples [Malus ×domestica Borkh. `Gala' and Mansf. `Golden Delicious'] on volatile levels, quality attributes, respiration, and internal atmospheres after storage at 0 °C for 1 to 6 months, and during subsequent shelf life at 20 °C were investigated. Over 30 volatiles were detected, most of the identified volatiles were esters, the rest were alcohols, aldehydes, a ketone and a sesquiterpene. Shellac- and wax-based fruit coatings transiently inhibited total volatile levels in `Golden Delicious' while not affecting those in `Gala' apples during 6 months of storage in air at 0 °C. Holding fruit at 20 °C for up to three weeks following cold storage increased volatile levels with coated and nontreated fruit having similar amounts. Only shellac-coated `Golden Delicious' apples accumulated ethanol and ethyl acetate when held at 20 °C. The shrink-wrap polymeric film treatment had no effect on fruit volatile levels during cold storage or during subsequent shelf life at 20 °C. Coating but not film treatments reduced respiration and ethylene production rates that were observed upon transferring the fruit to 20 °C. Internal CO2 and ethylene levels increased and O2 levels decreased in coated fruit. The coating treatments led to better retention of flesh firmness in `Golden Delicious' but not `Gala' apples. Coating and film treatments reduced fresh weight loss in both cultivars during cold storage. The results suggest that harvest-applied coating and film treatments having relatively high permeability for CO2 and O2 and relatively low permeability for water vapor and fruit volatiles have potential for improving the storage and shelf-life qualities of `Gala' and `Golden Delicious' apples.
E. Marroquin, J. L. Silva, J. O. Garner, J. B. Magee, J. Braswell, and J. Spiers
Three varieties of rabbit eye (Vaccinium ashei) blueberries (`Climax',, `Premier', and `Tifblue') were harvested in Mississippi and two varieties of highbush (v. corymbosum blueberries (`BlueCrop' and `Jersey') were harvested in Michigan. Each variety was harvested at three different locations as replications. The berries were rapidly cooled to 5°C after harvest, placed in 1-pint containers, and analyzed at 7-day intervals for 28 days with day 0 being 48 h after harvest.
Shear, compression and puncture forces were higher for rabbiteye spp. than for highbush spp. `Bluecrop' blueberries showed the lowest shear force whereas, Climax, had the most shear force. Puncture force (skin toughness) was lower for `Bluecrop' and `Jersey' and higher for, Climax, There was an increase in shear force by all varieties with storage time. `Premier, and `Climax' had lower soluble solids, but they increased with storage time. `Jersey' had the highest pH and `Tifblue' the lowest. Although all varieties lost moisture with time, `Bluecrop' always had higher moisture. Mold growth varied with time; however, `Bluecrop' had a higher percentage of moldy berries throughout refrigeration. The percent decay was higher for highbush blueberries after 16 d of refrigeration. Rabbiteye's toughness and firmness give them a longer refrigerated shelf-life over highbush blueberries.
Daniel Stanley* and Donald Huber
Banana production is geographically isolated from consumer markets in temperate regions. This disparity has prompted study of ethylene antagonists such as 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to extend marketable shelf life. Banana fruit (Musa acuminata v. Cavendish) were treated with ethylene (100 ppm) in sea containers (24 h,14.4 °C, 90% RH). After venting, one container was provided with 300 ppb 1-MCP (12 h, 15 °C). Controls were maintained in similar containers without 1-MCP. After treatments, ripening was monitored at 18 °C. Color was graded from values of 2 (green) to 7 (yellow, with sugar spots). During storage at 18 °C, control fruit remained within the color range of 4 to 6 (considered the most marketable) for 3 d compared with 6 d for 1-MCP-treated fruit. The time to reach stage 7 occurred at 8 and 13 d, respectively, in control and 1-MCP treated fruit. Sugar spots occurred after 6 to 7 d for both control and 1-MCP-treated fruit. Thereafter, incidence diverged significantly, with 1-MCP-treated fruit remaining below 10% for 11 d and control fruit exceeding 30% by 10 d. Through the first 5 d, firmness (initially 75 N) declined at comparable rates in both treatments, with control fruit declining to 20 N after 15 d. 1-MCP-treated fruit remained near 40 N throughout storage. Ripening variability did not differ within the treatments. Informal sensory analysis showed that some participants preferred the taste and firmness properties of 1-MCP-treated fruit while others preferred the lower firmness of traditionally ripened fruit. The sweetness of treated fruit was only slightly lower than that of control fruit, yet was still considered acceptable. Work in progress is addressing sugar transformations in 1-MCP-treated banana fruit.
Suparna Whale*, Zora Singh, and John Janes
The effects of preharvest application of AVG and ethephon alone, or in combinations, on color development, fruit quality and shelf life were tested in `Pink Lady' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) in Western Australia during 2002.The experiment aimed at improving color without adversely affecting fruit quality at harvest and after long term cold storage. Treatments included 124.5 g·ha-1 AVG only [148 Days after full bloom (DAFB)]; 280 g·ha-1 ethephon only (148 DAFB); AVG (148 DAFB) followed by ethephon (166 DAFB); and control. Fruit were evaluated for color development, internal ethylene concentration (IEC) and quality at commercial harvest(181DAFB) and 45, 90, and135 days after cold storage (1 °C ± 0.5 °C). At harvest, ethephon with or without AVG significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved red blush and total anthocyanin in fruit skin. AVG+ethephon treated-fruit had higher total anthocyanin and TSS compared to AVG alone and control fruit. There were no significant differences among different AVG and ethephon treatments for fruit firmness and IEC. During different storage periods, fruit treated with AVG alone and AVG+ethephon had significantly lower IEC compared to fruit treated with ethephon only and the control, however the interactions between treatments and storage periods were not significant for fruit firmness. AVG + ethephon and ethephon alone did not significantly affect fruit color during different storage periods, which showed that the subsequent ethephon spray on AVG-treated fruit had overcome the inhibitory effect of AVG. Our experimental results showed that application of AVG followed by ethephon improved color in `Pink Lady' apples without compromising fruit quality including firmness during extended cold storage.
Manuel G. Astacio and Marc W. van Iersel
Inadequate watering during retail diminishes the salability and shelf life of plants ( Armitage, 1983 ), resulting in economic losses for growers and/or retailers. One way to reduce water use and extend the shelf life of plants in retail settings is
R.E. McDonald, T.G. McCollum, and E.A. Baldwin
Mature, green tomatoes were either gassed or not gassed with C2H4 for 24 h, immersed in 42C water for 60 min, or held in 38C air for 48 h or not treated, and then stored at either 2C or 13C for 14 days before ripening at 20C. During ripening, the fruit were evaluated for color development, internal quality, and decay and for volatiles when full ripe. Both high-temperature treatments reduced chilling injury and inhibited decay. Days to ripen after removal from storage at 2C or 13C was not influenced by heat treatment method. Color development, lycopene content, and internal quality characteristics of fruit were similar at the ripe stage, irrespective of heat treatment. Of 15 volatiles analyzed, seven showed decreased levels of concentrations as a result of C2H4 gassing, nine showed decreased levels when stored at 2C prior to ripening, and most were unaffected by the heat treatments. Heat treatments appear to be beneficial for maintaining tomato fruit quality.
Charles F. Forney
Volatile compounds make a significant contribution to the quality and storage life of fresh strawberries, blueberries, and raspberries. Strawberry aroma is composed predominately of esters, although alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes are also present in smaller quantities. The major volatiles contributing to aroma include ethyl butanoate, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, ethyl hexanoate, methyl butanoate, linalool, and methyl hexanoate. In lowbush (wild) blueberries, aroma is predominated by esters and alcohols including ethyl and methyl methylbutanoates, methyl butanoate, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and 3-buteneol, while highbush blueberry aroma is dominated by aromatic compounds, esters, terpenes and long chain alcohols. The aroma of raspberries is composed of a mixture of ketones and terpenes, including damascenone, ionone, geraniol, and linalool. The composition and concentration of these aroma compounds are affected by fruit maturity and storage conditions. As fruit ripen, the concentration of aroma volatiles rapidly increases. This increase in volatile synthesis closely follows pigment formation both on and off the plant. In strawberry fruit, volatile concentration increases about 4-fold in the 24-h period required for fruit to ripen from 50% red to fully red on the plant. In storage, volatile composition is affected by storage temperature, duration, and atmosphere. Postharvest holding temperature and concentrations of O2 and CO2 can alter the quantity and composition of aroma volatiles. The effects of postharvest environments on volatile composition will be discussed.
Charles F. Forney
Freshly harvested heads of `Cruiser' or `Paragon' broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Italica group) were heated by immersing in water at 42, 45, 48, 50, or 52C. Immersion times were decreased as treatment temperatures were increased and ranged from 20 to 40 minutes at 42C to 1 to 3 minutes at 52C. Control heads, dipped in 25C water for 0, 10, or 40 minutes, began to turn yellow after ≈3 days storage at 20C and 80% to 90% relative humidity. Immersion in 42C water delayed yellowing by 1 or 2 days; immersion in 45, 48, 50, or 52C prevented yellowing for ≤7 days. Water loss of broccoli during storage at 20C increased by ≤1% per day by some hot-water treatments. Immersion in hot water decreased the incidence of decay during storage at 20C. Immersion in 50 or 52C water for 2 minutes was most effective in controlling decay development. Broccoli immersed in 52C water for 3 minutes had a distinct off-odor. Control and treated broccoli held at 0C for 8 days following hot-water dips were similar in quality. Yellowing of heat-treated broccoli was inhibited when broccoli was warmed to 20C following storage at 0C. Hot-water treatments also delayed senescence at 20C when broccoli was treated following 3 weeks of storage at 0C. Immersion of broccoli in 50C water for 2 minutes was the most effective treatment for reducing yellowing and decay while not inducing off-odors or accelerating weight loss.