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Ricardo Goenaga, Heber Irizarry, and Brian Irish

obtained from a few unique segregating ‘F 1 ’ trees. Additionally, the yield data needed from long-term experiments to validate this assumption are not available. Lockwood et al. (2007) observed that the optimal strategy for clone selection is by family

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Feng-yang Yu, Yue-e Xiao, Lin Cheng, Shu-cheng Feng, and Lei-lei Zhang

( Goldblatt and Manning, 2008 ). There are ≈70,000 known Iris cultivars, and more than 1000 new cultivars are produced by selection and hybridization every year ( Hu and Xiao, 2012 ). Few of those cultivars bloom in early spring (late March to mid-April in

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Jaime Prohens, Adrián Rodríguez-Burruezo, María Dolores Raigón, and Fernando Nuez

compounds present in minor quantities in eggplant are numerous, and apart from their potent antioxidant activity, they also include free radical scavenging and antitumoral activities ( Sawa et al., 1998 ; Triantis et al., 2005 ). The selection of eggplant

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Heriberto Aguilar Pérez, Jesús Arreola Ávila, Emigdio Morales Olais, Eutimio Cuéllar Villarreal, Ángel Lagarda Murrieta, Héctor Tarango Rivero, Jesús Humberto Núñez Moreno, and Leonardo Lombardini

evaluated as ‘Selection 19-20’ after being grafted on five seedling—trees planted at 10 × 10 m distance in the 1980s at INIFAP’s Experiment Station of Zaragoza Coahuila (lat. 28°29′30″ N; long. 100°55′10″ W). ‘Norteña’ has been registered in the Servicio

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Sorkel A. Kadir and Edward L. Proebsting

In Dec. 1990, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) selections varied in floral bud kill from 9% to 92% following exposure to severe cold. In the following winter, the hardiness of two hardy and two tender selections was analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA) to screen selections for hardiness. In a mild winter, when buds remained at their minimum hardiness level, the hardy selections consistently were > 2C hardier than the tender selections. About one-half of that hardiness difference was associated with differences in tissue water content, the other half with unknown factors. Buds of the tender selections began to develop earlier and bloomed earlier than the hardy selections. DTA analysis of floral bud populations separated selections that clearly differed in floral bud hardiness.

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L. C. Peirce

Abstract

H. L. de Vilmorin, in 1900, wrote “selection is the surest and most powerful instrument that man possesses for the modification of living organisms”. This early estimate of selection’s importance would probably be accurate today. While many techniques have since been developed as effective tools for the plant breeder-irradiation, colchicine, tissue cluture-his reward more frequently comes from selection pressure applied to population variation, natural or created.

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Sogo Nishio, Masahiko Yamada, Yutaka Sawamura, Norio Takada, and Toshihiro Saito

fluctuate depending on the development stage of shoots evaluated and on environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity. Selection using molecular markers that identify a genotype can be done accurately with low cost and time expenditure

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Charles J. Wasonga, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales, Timothy G. Porch, and Phillip D. Griffiths

. Breeding line selection The 20 F 1 hybrid combinations from crosses involving the four snap bean breeding lines and five snap bean cultivars were generated in July 2008 ( Fig. 1 ). F 1 phenotypes were visually compared with phenotypes of the corresponding

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David C. Ferree

In 1987, `Starkspur Supreme Delicious' and `Melrose' were planted on eight apomitic apple selections made in Germany by Dr. Hanna Schmidt for use as rootstocks and compared to trees on M.7. Selection 2, was the most precocious, followed by trees on M.7, with selections 1 and 7 being less precocious than M.7. Selections 2 and 8 were 25% larger than M.7, while 1, 3, 4, and 7 were similar in size and 5 was 15% smaller than trees on M.7. Selections 2 and 8 had the highest cumulative yields/tree, followed by trees on M.7, with all other selections having lower yields. Internal bark necrosis (IBN) developed on the `Delicious' trees, with the most-severe symptoms on selections 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7, with less-severe symptoms on 8 and very little present on trees on M.7. IBN was correlated with leaf Mn levels. In 1995, the highest density of flowering spurs occurred on M.7 and selections 3 and 7, with lower densities in selections 2 and 5. Selection 2 had the highest density of non-fl owering spurs, followed by selection 5, with all others having lower densities similar to trees on M.7.

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Sara Melito, Angela Fadda, Emma Rapposelli, and Maurizio Mulas

the result of a selection program, based on few morphological traits (see subsequently), aimed at identifying, throughout Sardinia, genotypes with good biomass and fruit production ( Mulas et al., 2002 ). The origin of each accession, the accession