We investigated the basis for fruit drop in walnut (Juglans regia L.) following bloom period applications of streptomycin as a potential control treatment for walnut blight, a bacterial disease incited by Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis (Pierce) Dye. Experiments were conducted on streptomycin-treated field plots of `Vina' walnut. Four streptomycin treatments were applied at different times relative to anthesis. Fruit from all treatments grew similarly for four weeks following anthesis when high levels of fruit abscission began to occur in the treatment sprayed during the bloom period. Microscopy revealed that in this treatment ovules failed to develop normally, and neither embryo nor endosperm developed. The pattern of fruit development and timing of fruit drop following streptomycin treatment at bloom is similar in all ways to that of unpollinated walnut flowers where growth appears normal until abscission occurs 3 to 5 weeks after anthesis. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth were inhibited in the bloom-period treatments. Pollen germination in vitro was not affected by addition of streptomycin to a germination medium. If streptomycin were to be used in a walnut blight control program, application timed to coincide with the period of pistillate bloom and pistillate flower receptivity should be avoided.
V.S. Polito, K. Pinney, R. Buchner, and W. Olson
Joseph H. Connell
California almonds [Prunus dulcis, (Mill.) D.A. Webb, syn. Prunus amygdalus Batsch] are self-incompatible requiring cross-pollination to produce a commercial crop. Within seven known pollen groups, they also display cross-incompatibility. Coincidence of bloom between compatible cultivars is essential for cross-pollination. Since almonds are pollinated primarily by honeybees [Apis mellifera L.], arranging pollinizers in close proximity to one another promotes maximum pollen transfer. Almonds are frequently subject to inclement weather during their February bloom period. Strong honeybee colonies are better able to forage during marginal weather conditions than are weak colonies. Honeybee management can encourage pollen foraging and placement of colonies can affect flight activity and ultimately nut-set. Weather permitting vigorous honeybee flight activity is the most important factor for setting a good crop. Temperature also affects anther dehiscence, pollen germination, and pollen tube growth. The sooner an almond flower is cross-pollinated after opening, the greater the chance of fertilization and nut-set. Optimizing all of these pollination factors is therefore essential to achieve maximum production in almond orchards.
Thomas H. Boyle and Alexander Idnurm
Post-pollination barriers to intergeneric hybridization between Easter cactus [Hatiora gaertneri (Regel) Barthlott, H. rosea (Lagerheim) Barthlott, and H. ×graeseri Barthlott ex D. Hunt] and holiday cactus [Schlumbergera truncata (Haworth) Moran and S. ×buckleyi (Buckley) Tjaden] were determined and procedures were devised for circumventing these barriers. Examination of Hatiora and Schlumbergera pistils at 72 hours after intergeneric crosses indicated no abnormalities in pollen germination or pollen tube growth in the upper style. Pollen tubes of Hatiora were arrested in the lower half of Schlumbergera styles and failed to enter the ovary. Schlumbergera pollen tubes exhibited normal growth in Hatiora styles but most tubes lost directionality, burst, or failed to penetrate the micropyles after reaching the ovary. Three growth regulators (BA, GA3 and NAAm) were applied individually to ovaries of `Crimson Giant' Easter cactus after intergeneric crosses. GA3 and NAAm increased fruit set compared to the control (lanolin alone) or BA but none of the fruit harvested 160 days after pollination contained mature embryos. Four progeny were obtained when a short-styled S. ×buckleyi clone was crossed as a female parent with H. ×graeseri. Isozyme patterns and morphological characteristics confirmed that the four progeny were intergeneric hybrids. This is the first report of successful intergeneric hybridization between Hatiora and Schlumbergera. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)]; gibberellic acid (GA3); α-naphthaleneacetamide (NAAm).
Raphael A. Stern and Shmuel Gazit
The lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) has two types of pollen-releasing flowers—M1 and M2. We compared the morphology and viability of these two pollen types, mainly for the two commercial cultivars in Israel: `Mauritius' and `Floridian'. Observation by scanning electron microscope did not reveal any consistent morphological differences between the two pollen types. However, M2 pollen was found to have a consistent and significant advantage over M1 pollen in in vitro germination tests. M2 pollen from `Mauritius', `Floridian', `No Mai Chee', `Wai Chee', and `Early Large Red' had a much higher germination rate at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C than M1 pollen from those same cultivars. The optimal incubation temperature for in vitro pollen germination was 30 °C for M2 pollen of all five cultivars studied; adequate germination rates were also found at 35 and 25 °C. The optimal temperature for M1 pollen germination was also 30 °C for `Mauritius' and `No Mai Chee', but was not well defined for the other three cultivars. No pronounced advantage of M2 pollen-tube growth could be discerned 48 h after hand pollination. However, final fruit set was consistently and significantly higher after hand pollination with M2 pollen, relative to M1 pollen. Hot (32/27 °C) and warm (27/22 °C) regimes during flower development had a pronounced detrimental effect on pollen viability compared to a cool (22/17 °C) regime. `Floridian' was much more susceptible than `Mauritius' in this respect.
Eva Domínguez, Jesús Cuartero, and Rafael Fernández-Muñoz
Using soil bed cultivations as controls and under two temperature regimes (maximum/minimum ≈20/4 °C and 25/10 °C), effects of container volume (16-, 10-, and 3-L pots) on in vitro germination, in vivo tube growth, acetocarmine staining, and quantity of pollen of tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Moneymaker', L. pennellii (Corr.) D'Arcy accession PE-45, and of the corresponding F1 hybrid] were studied. Under the 20/4 °C regime, in comparison with soil-bed cultivated control plants, the cold sensitive cultivar, Moneymaker, grown in the two smaller pots showed significant increases of in vitro pollen germination, acetocarmine staining, and number of pollen grains produced per flower. Similar results were observed with the F1 except for the number of pollen grains which were not significantly different. Pollen of accession PE-45 was unaffected by cold and no container effect was detected. Results of in vivo pollen tube growth in `Moneymaker' at the 20/4 °C regime showed that fruit set was only possible in 3-L pots. Reduction of the negative effects of cold on pollen from plants grown in the 3-L pots may be explained in part by the daytime rise of root-zone temperatures that did not occur in the 10- or 16-L pots or in the soil bed. Therefore, fruit production of tomato plants grown under low temperatures in small pots may not be a valid predictor of commercial winter fruit production of plants cultivated in soil beds.
R. Bruce Carle and J. Brent Loy
Two experiments were conducted to test and delineate gametophytic subvitality of the fused vein trait in Cucurbita pepo. Gametophytic subvitality was verified by comparing pollen tube growth for fused vein and normal pollen in situ. Microscopic examination of partitioned, co-pollinated distillate flowers revealed inferior fused vein gametophyte performance. Normal pollen tubes grew faster and were significantly more abundant in the lower portion of the style. The consequences of gametophytic subvitality on seed yield and inheritance were shown by manipulating the severity of pollen competition. Fused vein, normal and F1 lines were pollinated with fused vein, normal, F and a 50:50 pollen mix at three different pollen loads. Fused vein pollen generated significantly fewer seed per fruit in all female genotypes. As a constituent in F, or mixed pollen, it produced significant seed yield reductions at the low pollen load. In F1 and testcross populations, a reduction in pollen load and therefore pollen competition significantly increased the number of fused vein individuals in segregating populations.
Shao-Ling Zhang and Shin Hiratsuka
Cultivars of the Japanese pear [Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm.) Nakai] have variable degrees of self-incompatibility (SI) and can be classified into at least three groups: strong, intermediate, or weak SI; as shown by the extent of self-pollen tube growth in the style, and the percentage of fruit set following self-pollination. Following self-pollination, the elongation of pollen tubes in the detached styles of `Kosui' and `Kikusui' became increasingly suppressed from 4 days before anthesis (–4 DAA) to 2 days after anthesis (2 DAA). Tube growth of `Kosui' was more suppressed than that of `Kikusui' during this period. In `Osa-Nijisseiki', however, the rate of tube growth did not vary with stage of stylar development, from –8 to 2 DAA. Pollen tubes elongated much better after cross-pollination than after self-pollination at all stages tested, and the extent of the elongation increased as the styles matured. The concentration of total S-protein (sum of two S-proteins per buffer-soluble protein) increased with stylar development, but the rate of increase varied with the cultivar. The rate was significantly greater in the strongly self-incompatible `Kosui' than in the moderately self-incompatible `Kikusui', and was slowest in the weakly self-incompatible `Osa-Nijisseiki' at all developmental stages. During stylar maturation, the concentration of S4-protein, which is common in all cultivars, was highest in `Kosui', followed by `Kikusui' and `Osa-Nijisseiki'. Thus, the cultivar differences in SI expression in the Japanese pear are determined about –4 DAA and appear to be regulated, in part, by the concentration of S-proteins produced in the style.
Leslie A. Blischak and Richard E. Veilleux
Gamete selection was examined as a breeding tool in developing Phalaenopsis hybrids that are more extreme temperature tolerant. Four pairs of hybrid cultivars were cross-pollinated, and then exposed to two temperature extremes, 30 °C/25 °C and 14 °C/9 °C, during initial pollen tube growth. One of each pollinated orchid cultivar was placed in either of two growth chambers and exposed to an 11-hour photoperiod with an irradiance of 180 mmol·m-2·s-1 and a relative humidity of 70% for 3–7 days. The capsules were collected after 150 days. Protocorm development was evaluated after 73 days on a thermogradient table ranging from 10 to 30 °C. For cold-pollinated seeds, protocorm development was optimum at 22 and 28 °C (means of 290 and 250 protocorms per plate, respectively), whereas the greatest protocorm development for warm-pollinated seeds occurred at 20 °C (103 protocorms/plate). Protocorms were evaluated for leaf and root formation 125 days after initial plating. Transfer to warm or cold incubators occurred as seedlings matured. One year after the initial plating, seedlings were evaluated on the following criteria: weight, number of leaves, leaf width, leaf length, leaf area, number of roots, and root length. The pollination treatment significantly affected the number of roots per seedling, whereas table position during germination significantly affected weight. The weight, number of leaves, and average root length were significantly affected by the pollination treatment and incubator interaction. The interaction between pollination treatment and table position significantly affected weight, number of roots, and average root length. Additional replication is required to confirm the greater germinability of cold-pollinated seed at higher temperatures.
Sandra M. Reed
Breeding efforts in Clethra alnifolia L., an ornamental shrub native to the Eastern U.S., are hindered by a lack of information on the reproductive behavior of this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate self-compatibility, time of stigma receptivity, and the relationship between time of pollen shed and stigma receptivity in C. alnifolia. Stigma receptivity and changes in floral morphology were monitored over a 7-day period beginning at flower opening. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in styles were examined following self- and cross-pollinations using fluorescence microscopy. Seed set and germination were compared following self- and cross-pollinations. Anthers began to dehisce in `Hummingbird' and `Ruby Spice' the day after flowers opened, but stigmas did not become fully receptive to pollen until 2 days later. An increase in the length of pistils was observed following flower opening. Maximum elongation of pistils occurred at approximately the same time stigmas became receptive and could be utilized as an indicator of receptivity. While self-pollen tubes appeared to grow slightly slower than cross-pollen tubes, there was no indication of a self-incompatibility system acting at the stigmatic or stylar level in C. alnifolia. Self-pollinations of `Hummingbird' and `Ruby Spice' produced fewer seeds than did cross-pollinations of these cultivars. Germination of all seed obtained from this study was too poor to allow a comparison of germination rates of the self- and cross-pollinated seed. However, because a few self-progeny were obtained, emasculation is recommended when making controlled pollinations. The presence of a late acting self-incompatibility system or early-acting inbreeding depression was proposed as being responsible for the lower seed set following self-pollination.
Gregory M. Peck, Candace N. DeLong, Leon D. Combs, and Keith S. Yoder
’-specific pollen tube growth model for their ability to reduce crop load and disease incidence. The pollen tube growth model uses hourly temperature data to predict the amount of time between pollination and fertilization ( Peck et al., 2016 ; Yoder et al., 2013