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Diana R. Cochran and Amy Fulcher

, growers can manipulate flowering dates to extend shipping periods ( Hayashi et al., 2001 ). To achieve target uniformity, nursery producers manually prune and, less commonly, use chemical PGRs to enhance plant growth and plant architecture. Manual pruning

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Kristine M. Lang, Ajay Nair, and Kenneth J. Moore

were averaged to obtain one value per plant. This routine was repeated on each of the six plants for each cultivar within the plot (n = 756). Plant growth. Several measurements were taken at the end of each growing season to assess plant growth

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Antonios E. Tsagkarakis, Michael E. Rogers, and Timothy M. Spann

systemic insecticides and the last treatment with contact insecticides was greater than 1 year before PGR treatment. Table 1. Active ingredient chemical name, trade name, manufacturer, and rate of plant growth regulators used to study the effects of

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Modeste Kan Kouassi, Jane Kahia, Christophe N’guessan Kouame, Mathias Gnion Tahi, and Edmond Kouablan Koffi

different cocoa genotypes react differently to different callus-inducing hormones ( Traore and Guiltinan, 2006 ). Plant growth regulators play a key role by intervening in the reactions that lead to a reorientation of the program of gene expression. This

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Shahzad M.A. Basra and Carol J. Lovatt

agriculture (land, labor, water, fertilizer, etc.), there is a compelling need globally to increase yield per unit of land to increase grower income and sustain organic commodity-based industries. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are powerful tools for solving

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Piyada Alisha Tantasawat, Atitaya Sorntip, and Paniti Pornbungkerd

, Papadopoulos et al. (2006) reported that a 2.5-ppm KIN foliar spray had beneficial effects on plant growth (taller plants, greater leaf area, and fresh weight of leaves and stems), resulting in higher marketable yield in the spring–summer crop and in larger

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Marisa Y. Thompson, Jennifer J. Randall, Dawn VanLeeuwen, and Richard J. Heerema

; Tombesi et al., 2011 ; Weinbaum et al., 2001 ; Wood, 1991 , 2011b ). Plant growth regulators applied to pecan shoots affect return bloom differently, depending on whether the shoots were nonfruiting or fruiting during the treatment year ( Thompson et al

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L.G. Sanabria and S.E. Newman


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Shital Poudyal and Bert M. Cregg

herbicides applied at nurseries and their effects on plants. Insecticides . Although the mode of action of insecticides targets insect metabolism, some insecticides can affect plants as well. Insecticides can reduce plant growth, mainly by inhibiting

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Ustun Sahin, Melek Ekinci, Fatih Mehmet Kiziloglu, Ertan Yildirim, Metin Turan, Recep Kotan, and Selda Ors

Water deficit is one of the main constraints affecting plant growth and crop yield in arid, semiarid, and even in humid areas, causing the fatal economic losses in agriculture ( Marulanda et al., 2009 ; Sandhya et al., 2010 ). Drought has been