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Virginia I. Lohr and Caroline H. Pearson-Mims

Colorful baskets of flowering annuals are popular with home gardeners, but these containerized plants require frequent waterings. Mulching of field soils is a proven way to conserve soil moisture. This study was conducted to see if mulching would reduce the need to irrigate containerized plants. Adding either pine bark or sphagnum moss mulch to potted `Impulse Rose' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) plants reduced the frequency of irrigations when the plants were small and had not yet reached canopy closure. Mulching had no effect on plant height or flowering.

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Jake F. Browder, Alexander X. Niemiera, J. Roger Harris, and Robert D. Wright

Sulfur (S) is essential to the growth of higher plants; however, research on S fertilizer requirements for container-grown nursery tree species has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the substrate solution S concentration that maximizes the growth of container-grown pin oak (Quercus palustris Münchh) (pin oak–K2SO4 experiment) and japanese maple (Acer palmatum Thunb.) (japanese maple–K2SO4 experiment) in a pine bark (PB) substrate. Both species were fertilized with solutions supplying a range of S concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg·L–1) using K2SO4. Regression analysis revealed that dry weights of both species were near maximum at the predicted application concentration of 30 mg·L–1 S, which corresponded to about 15 and 7 mg·L–1 S in substrate solution for pin oak and japanese maple, respectively. In a Micromax, FeSO4, lime experiment, S was supplied to pin oak via a preplant micronutrient sulfate fertilizer or FeSO4 in limed or unlimed PB. When the PB pH was relatively low (4.5, unlimed), FeSO4 and the preplant micronutrient fertilizer were effective in supplying ample S. However, when the PB pH was relatively high (6.1, limed), the preplant micronutrient fertilizer with micronutrients in a sulfate form was more effective in supplying S and micronutrients than FeSO4.

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William F. Lamack and Alex X. Niemiera

Studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of water application medium moisture deficit, water application rate, and intermittent application on water application efficiency {[(amount applied - amount leached)/amount applied] x 100} of spray stake-irrigated, container-grown plants. Pine bark-filled containers were irrigated to replace moisture deficits of 600, 1200, or 1800 ml; deficits were returned in single, continuous applications of 148, 220, or 270 ml·min-l. Efficiency was unaffected by application rate but decreased with increased medium moisture deficit. In the second experiment, container medium at a 600-ml deficit was irrigated with 400 or 600 ml (6570 and 100% water replacement, respectively); deficits were returned in a single, continuous application or in intermittent 100-ml applications with 30-min intervals between irrigations. Application efficiency was greater with intermittent irrigation (95% and 84% for 400- and 600-ml replacement, respectively) than with continuous irrigation (84% and 67% for 400- and 600-ml replacement, respectively). In the third experiment, pine bark was irrigated with 600 ml water (100% replacement) in 50-, 100-, or 150-ml aliquots with 20, 40, or 60 min between applications in a factorial design. Efficiency increased with decreasing application volume and increasing time between applications. Highest efficiency (86%) was achieved with an irrigation regimen of 50-ml applications with at least 40 min between applications, compared to 62% for the control treatment (a single, continuous application of 600 ml). Our results suggest that growers using spray stakes would waste less water by applying water intermittently rather than continuously.

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J.C. Rodriguez, D.J. Cantliffe, N.L. Shaw, and Z. Karchi

In the spring of 2001 and 2002, different combinations of media (coarse perlite, medium perlite, and pine bark) and containers (polyethylene bags and plastic pots) were used for hydroponic production of `Galia' muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.) to determine their effect on fruit yield and quality, and their influence on costs of production. Marketable yields obtained for `Gal-152' in the spring 2001 and 2002 were 25.5 kg·m–2 and 39.0 kg·m–2 respectively. When data were combined for 2001 and 2002, fruit yield and fruit quality were unaffected by any combination of media and container. Average soluble solids content was generally greater than 10° Brix. It was determined that the use of pine bark media and plastic pots instead of perlite and bags would save $18,200 per year (two crops)—a feasible option for reducing costs of producing `Galia' muskmelons in greenhouses using soilless culture without loss of yield and fruit quality.

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Anthony L. Witcher, Eugene K. Blythe, Glenn B. Fain, and Kenneth J. Curry

substrate air space. Substrate container capacity ranged from 51.8% to 66.6% (2008 experiment) and 53.9% to 60.5% (2009 experiment). Table 2. Physical properties of pine bark and whole pine tree substrates in a 2008 cutting propagation experiment. z Table 3

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Jake F. Browder, Alexander X. Niemiera, J. Roger Harris, and Robert D. Wright

Substrates of container-grown plants are commonly preplant amended with sulfated micronutrients to supply micronutrients. However, the cause for the increased growth may be due to micronutrient addition or other factors such as S addition or substrate acidification. Container-grown pin oak (Quercus palustris Müench) and japanese maple (Acer palmatum Thunb.) seedlings were grown in a 100% pine bark substrate and amended (or not) with one of the following treatments: control (no amendment), Micromax, K2SO4, H2SO4, HCl, chelated micronutrients, elemental S, or CaSO4. After 11 weeks, dry weights of plants in all treatments supplying S were higher than plants receiving no S. Dry weights of plants in all experiments receiving the chelate treatment were not higher than dry weights for control plants. These data indicate that S, not micronutrient application, is a primary cause of increased growth from the addition of sulfated micronutrients. However, it was demonstrated that there are conditions such as higher substrate solution pH (4.1 vs. 5.4), where Micromax may prove advantageous over sulfur alone since it would supply micronutrients as well as S.

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Jeb S. Fields, James S. Owen Jr., James E. Altland, Marc W. van Iersel, and Brian E. Jackson

preparation. On 17 Mar. 2015, ≈2.5 m 3 of stabilized (aged between 4 and 6 months) loblolly pine bark screened through a 12.6-mm screen was attained from a commercial nursery substrate company (Pacific Organics, Henderson, NC). The bark was further separated

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Jianjun Chen, Dennis B. McConnell, Cynthia A. Robinson, Russell D. Caldwell, and Yingfeng Huang

materials; Fafard, Inc., Apopka, Fla., for providing sphagnum peat and pine bark used in this study, and Robert J. Black, Gladis Zinati, and Kelly Everitt for their critical reading of this manuscript. This research was supported in part by the Center for

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S. Christopher Marble, Andrew K. Koeser, Gitta Hasing, Drew McClean, and Annette Chandler

(pine straw needles), pine bark nuggets alone (Timberline Mulch; Oldcastle ® , Atlanta, GA) (pine bark), herbicide alone (herbicide), pine straw with herbicide (pine straw + herbicide), pine bark with herbicide (pine bark + herbicide), and a bare soil

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Timothy L. Grey, Mark Czarnota, Thomas Potter, and B. Todd Bunnell

objective of this research was to determine flurprimidol dissipation rates from a flurprimidol-coated granule and to compare directly the movement of flurprimidol in sand, pine bark, and hardwood bark. Materials and Methods Greenhouse studies were conducted