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Takanori Kuronuma and Hitoshi Watanabe

can adapt to periodic drought. They are regarded as CAM plants whose stomata remain closed during the day, with gas exchange occurring at night ( VanWoert et al., 2005 ). This physiological pathway plays a crucial role in the plant’s response to

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Peter J. Mes, Peter Boches, James R. Myers, and Robert Durst

have actually found an additive response ( Rick et al., 1968 ; unpublished data). The atv gene regulates the phytochrome response ( Kerckhoffs et al., 1997 ); Aft and Abg have not been characterized, thus it is unknown the pathway in which they

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Yifan Jiang, Nan Zhao, Fei Wang, and Feng Chen

defense role to deter herbivorous insects and other unwanted visitors ( Raguso, 2004 ). For example, nicotin emitted from the flowers of tobacco ( Nicotiana attenuate ) has a defense role ( Euler and Baldwin, 1996 ). The jasmonic acid (JA) pathway has been

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Nobutaka Shiraiwa, Kaori Kikuchi, Ichiro Honda, Masayoshi Shigyo, Hiroko Yamazaki, Daisuke Tanaka, Kenji Tanabe, and Akihiro Itai

( Tulipia gesneriana ) ( Rebers et al., 1995 ). In Arabidopsis thalian a, cold treatment was also shown to induce an increase in GAs and bolting ( Xu et al., 1997 ). In the major GA biosynthetic pathway in higher plants, gibberellin 3-oxidase [GA 3-oxidase

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Gang-Yi Wu, Jun-Ai Hui, Zai-Hua Wang, Jie Li, and Qing-Sheng Ye

) in China were reported to be semishade C3 orchids There is no conclusive evidence to indicate that the photosynthetic pathway of wild Dendrobium species endemic to China belong to the nobile type that blossom in spring, and they are different from

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Seong Min Woo and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

number of reports indicate that embryogenic and organogenic regeneration pathways can be induced under identical culture conditions in some species ( Castillo et al., 2000 ; Fiore et al., 1997 ; Pasternak et al., 1999 ). TDZ, which is used for culture

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Zhi-li Suo, Xiao-qing Zhao, Jian-peng Zhao, Xiao-chong Zhao, and Fu-fei Chen

valuable material for scientific research on evolution of tree peony cultivars, metabolic pathways of pigments in the floral disc, origin of floral disc in Paeoniaceae, and other issues in evolutionary and developmental genetics. Availability

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Xue Li, Chen Zang, Hang Ge, Jing Zhang, Donald Grierson, Xue-ren Yin, and Kun-song Chen

enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, such as PAL, C4H, 4CL, hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:NADPH moxidoreductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), etc ( Barros et al., 2015 ; Bonawitz and Chapple, 2012 ). Many of the coding genes for these enzymes have been

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Kathleen G. Haynes, Beverly A. Clevidence, David Rao, Bryan T. Vinyard, and J. Marion White

pathway is complex and the regulation of carotenogenesis is poorly understood ( Romer and Fraser, 2005 ). Phytoene is the first step in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and it is desaturated and isomerized into all-trans lycopene. Two possible

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Jianfeng Liu, Bowen Yang, Yuetong Ming, Yuchu Zhang, and Yunqing Cheng

(BLAST) ( Altschul et al., 1990 ) was used to align them to NT and KEGG. Subsequently, GO annotations were obtained using Blast2GO (B2G) ( Conesa et al., 2005 ) with NR annotations, followed by GO classification analysis. The KEGG pathway functional