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Mohamad-Hossein Sheikh-Mohamadi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, Mostafa Farajpour, Mostafa Arab, and Mohammad Mahdi Majidi

complete inhibition or delay in the initiation of the germination and seedling establishment through the oxidative stress, osmotic stress, and ion toxicity ( Freitas and Costab, 2014 ; Zhang et al., 2012 ). Salinity tolerance during seed germination and

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Giovanni A. Caputo, Phillip A. Wadl, Lambert McCarty, Jeff Adelberg, Katherine M. Jennings, and Matthew Cutulle

treated with butafenacil, thus confirming that a cellular increase in the melatonin level in plants results in resistance to oxidative stress ( Park et al., 2013 ). The identification and selection of bentazon herbicide tolerant lines would be beneficial

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Lixin Xu, Mili Zhang, Xunzhong Zhang, and Lie-Bao Han

by photosystem II (PSII; Karpinski et al., 2002 ; Zhang and Ervin, 2008 ). Excess energy may be directed to O 2 and result in accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). To protect from oxidative stress, plants have developed efficient

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Stephanie Rossi and Bingru Huang

enzymes, such as CAT, POD, SOD, and APX, in response to oxidative stress to reduce the excitation energy of ROS, but antioxidant metabolism is hindered by heat stress ( Asada, 1999 ; Liu and Huang, 2000 ). To understand more fully how to reduce leaf

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Kuan-Hung Lin, Shao-Bo Huang, Chun-Wei Wu, and Yu-Sen Chang

wheat under salt stress revealed that their combined application more effectively reduced oxidative stress ( Al-Whaibi et al., 2012 ). Furthermore, the use of SA and CaCl 2 protected Rhododendron from injuries induced by heat stress ( Shen et al

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Jibiao Fan, Jing Ren, Weixi Zhu, Erick Amombo, Jinmin Fu, and Liang Chen

, respectively ( Liu et al., 2013 ), indicating that low temperature could affect cell membrane penetrability. Sufficient evidence suggests that extremely low temperature can induce oxidative stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in

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Zhengrong Hu, Erick Amombo, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Aoyue Bi, Huihui Zhu, Liang Zhang, Liang Chen, and Jinmin Fu

). Oxidative stress also has been suggested to be one of the causes of cold-induced damage ( Halliwell and Gutteridge, 2015 ; McKersie and Bowley, 1997 ), which occurs when there are excessive free cellular radicals. Under normal condition, reactive oxygen

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Zhengke Zhang, Yu Zhang, Donald J. Huber, Jingping Rao, Yunjing Sun, and Shanshan Li

cellular oxidative metabolism involving oxidative enzymes, including peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) ( Hershkovitz et al., 2005 ). Oxidative stress could also be promoted by the presence of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce

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T. Casey Barickman, Dean A. Kopsell, and Carl E. Sams

-epoxidation of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin through antheraxanthin) and the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-oxidative stress is well documented ( Du et al., 2010 ). For example, exogenous applications of ABA to barley ( Hordeum vulgar ) seedlings resulted in an

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Alefsi David Sánchez-Reinoso, Gustavo Adolfo Ligarreto-Moreno, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

conditions at vegetative stage, respectively. MDA and proline concentration. Regarding membrane damage by oxidative stress and osmolytes production, the results of MDA and proline production are shown in Fig. 4A–D . Significant differences also were observed