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Audrey A. Trotman, P. David, D. Mortley, and J. Seminara

In a greenhouse experiment, the effect of the addition of higher levels of potassium (K) in the replenishment stock used to supply nutrients in a nutrient film technique system was examined. For this study, `TU-82-155' sweetpotato was grown hydroponically for 120 days under four nutrient application/replenishment treatments: 1) REG—solution was changed at 14-day intervals and volume allowed to fluctuate; 2) MHH—replenishment with 10× concentrate of a modified half Hoagland solution (MHH) or with water to regain set volume (30.4 liters) and maintain set point of electrical conductivity (EC, 1050–1500 μmho); 3) MHH + 2K—daily replenishment with 10× concentrate of a modified half Hoagland solution (MHH) or with water to regain the set volume and adjust EC to 1400 followed by application of 50 ml of a 2K stock solution to an EC of 1500; 4) MHH/2K—replenishment with 10× concentrate of a modified half Hoagland solution that incorporated the 2K component or with water to regain set volume (30.4 liters) and maintain set point of electrical conductivity (EC, 105–1500 μmho). The storage root yield (g fresh weight per plant) was significantly higher when the 2K treatment was incorporated with the 10× MHH stock. The storage root yield averaged 324.8 g/plant compared with a yield of 289.6 and 252.9 g/plant, respectively, for the REG and MHH nutrient application protocol. As in earlier experiments, the MHH treatment was comparable to the REG protocol, validating the use of a replenishment approach for nutrient supply in hydroponic sweetpotato culture.

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P.P. David, A.A. Trotman, D.G. Mortley, D. Douglas, and J. Seminara

A study was initiated in the greenhouse to examine the effects of five \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}:\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document} ratios on sweetpotato growth. Plants were grown from vine cuttings of 15-cm length, planted in 0.15 x 0.15 x 1.2-m growth channels using a closed nutrient film technique system. Nutrient was supplied in a modified half-strength Hoagland's solution with a 1:2:4 N:K ratio. \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}:\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document} ratios investigated were 100:0, 0:100, 40:60, 60:40, and a control that consisted of a modified half-Hoagland solution with an N:K ratio of 1:2:4 and an \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}:\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document} of 1:7. Treatments were initiated 30 days after planting (DAP). Sequential plant harvest began 30 DAP and continued at 30-day intervals until final harvest at 150 DAP. Results showed a linear increase in fresh storage root fresh weight until 90 DAP for all treatments. However, from 60 DAP until the end of the growing season, plants grown in a 100% \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\) \end{document} solution consistently produced significantly less storage roots than in all other treatments. While all other treatments showed a decrease in storage root fresh weight after 90 DAP, plants grown in 100% \batchmode \documentclass[fleqn,10pt,legalpaper]{article} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amsmath} \pagestyle{empty} \begin{document} \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\) \end{document} and the control solution continued to increase linearly in storage root production. Storage root dry weight throughout the growing season followed similar trends to that of storage root fresh weight. Data suggest that a nutrient solution containing NO 3as its sole nitrogen source may be adequate for sweetpotato growth. This would make it possible for utilizing a one-way pH control method for nutrient solution.

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Gregory D. Goins, Neil C. Yorio, and Raymond M. Wheeler

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been conducting controlled environment research with potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in recirculating nutrient film technique (NFT)-hydroponic systems as a human life support component during long-duration spaceflight. Standard nutrient solution management approaches include constant pH regulation with nitric acid (HNO3) and daily adjustment of electrical conductivity (EC) equivalent to half-strength modified Hoagland's solution, where nitrate (NO3-) is the sole nitrogen (N) source. Although tuber yields have been excellent with such an approach, N use efficiency indices are expected to be low relative to tuber biomass production. Furthermore, the high amount of N used in NFT-hydroponics, typically results in high inedible biomass, which conflicts with the need to minimize system mass, volume, and expenditure of resources for long-duration missions. More effective strategies of N fertilization need to be developed to more closely match N supply with demand of the crop. Hence, the primary objective of this study was to identify the optimal N management regime and plant N requirement to achieve high yields and to avoid inefficient use of N and excess inedible biomass production. In separate 84-day cropping experiments, three N management protocols were tested. Treatments which decreased NO3 --N supply indirectly through lowering nutrient solution EC (Expt. I), or disabling pH control, and/or supplying NH4 +-N (Expt. III) did not significantly benefit tuber yield, but did influence N use efficiency indices. When supplied with an external 7.5 mm NO-3 --N for the first 42 days after planting (DAP), lowered to 1.0 mm NO3 -N during the final 42 days (Expt. II), plants were able to achieve yields on par with plants which received constant 7.5 mm NO3 --N (control). By abruptly decreasing N supply at tuber initiation in Expt. II, less N was taken up and accumulated by plants compared to those which received high constant N (control). However, proportionately more plant accumulated N was used (N use efficiency) to produce tuber biomass when N supply was abruptly lowered at tuber initiation in Expt. II. Hence, a hydroponic nutrient solution N management system may be modified to elicit greater plant N-use while maintaining overall high tuber yield as opposed to achieving high tuber yields through excess N supply and shoot growth.

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efficiency, marketing strategies need to be realigned according to the intended use of purchased flowers. Modified nutrient film technique increases uniformity of nutrient supply Nitrate accumulation in plant tissues, tougher environmental legislation, and

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. Walters and Currey (p. 645) grew 35 basil varieties in two different hydroponic systems, nutrient film technique and deep flow technique. Although hydroponic system had little effect on growth, the varieties differed widely in fresh and dry weight, height

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Kent D. Kobayashi, Theodore J.K. Radovich, and Brooke E. Moreno

Greenhouse Facility on campus where vegetables are produced on 1500 ft 2 , which will increase in size to nearly one-half acre in the future. The third operation includes outdoor non-circulating and nutrient film technique hydroponic systems for lettuce

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environmentally more acceptable to raise the electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution to appropriate levels. Greenhouse tomatoes were grown in the NFT (nutrient film technique) hydroponic system by partially substituting macronutrients in the recirculating

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Takashi Ikeda, Keisuke Yamazaki, Hiroshi Kumakura, and Hiroshi Hamamoto

absorbance, and photosynthesis rate in everbearing cultivars in a nutrient film technique system. Also, Lieten (1997) observed that higher root temperatures negatively affected vegetative development in his experiment ranging from 12 to 24 °C. With this

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Weiling Yuan, Shangyong Yuan, Zhixiong Liu, Leifu Chen, and Zhengming Qiu

.E. Holcomb, E.J. Orzolek, M.D. 1987 Effects of supplementary light, solution heating, and increased solution calcium levels on lettuce production in the nutrient film technique Appl. Agr. Res. 2 124 129 Steel, R.G.D. Torrie, J.H. 1980 Principle sand

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Constantinos Tzerakis, Dimitrios Savvas, Nick Sigrimis, and Georgios Mavrogiannopoulos

524 El-Jaoual, T. Cox, D.A. 1998 Manganese toxicity in plants J. Plant Nutr. 21 353 386 Gorbe, E. Calatayud, A. 2010 Optimization of nutrition in soilless systems: A review Adv. Bot. Res. 53 193 245 Graves, C.J. 1983 The nutrient film technique Hort