Five sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars (`Beauregard', `Excel', `Jewel', `Hernandez', and `Porto Rico') were evaluated for resistance to three root-knot nematode species: Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood (race 2), M. incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood (race 3), and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood. Resistance screening efficiency was assessed in both 400-cm3 square pots and 150-cm3 Conetainers™. Nematode infection was assessed as the percentage of root system galled, percentage of root system necrosis, and the number of nematode eggs produced per gram of root tissue. Means of these dependent variables were not different (P ≤ 0.05) between container types, with Conetainers™ being more efficient to use. Root necrosis was not related to nematode infection, but was significant among cultivars (P = 0.0005). The resistance responses of the cultivars differed depending on the nematode species. All five cultivars were resistant to M. arenaria race 2. `Hernandez', `Excel', and `Jewel' were also resistant to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica.
J.C. Cervantes-Flores, G.C. Yencho, and E.L. Davis
A study was conducted in Summer 1996 and 1997 to determine the residual effects of planting nematode-resistant vs. susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars and use of white vs. black polyethylene mulch on the growth and yield of a subsequent muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Tomato cultivars were planted in early April and harvested in June and early July. Muskmelons were planted in late July on the same beds. Muskmelons, planted after the nematode-resistant tomato cultivar Celebrity, produced significantly greater marketable yield and more fruit per hectare in both years than did muskmelons planted after the nematode-susceptible tomato cultivar Heatwave. Plant dry weight of muskmelons was greater and the percentage of their galled roots was smaller when planted after nematode-resistant tomatoes than when planted after nematode-susceptible ones. Mulching tomatoes with black or white polyethylene had no significant effect on growth, yield, and root galling of subsequent muskmelon crops.
Martin Schochow, Steven A. Tjosvold, and Antoon T. Ploeg
Lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.] plants were grown in soil infested with increasing densities of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, M. incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, or M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood, root-knot nematodes. Compared to tomato plants grown in soil with the same nematode numbers and species, lisianthus had less severe root symptoms, suffered less damage, and resulted in lower nematode multiplication rates. Lisianthus was a better host for M. javanica than for M. incognita, and a poor host for M. hapla. Lisianthus shoot weights were significantly reduced after inoculation with M. javanica or M. hapla, but not after M. incognita inoculation. The number of flowers produced per lisianthus plant was reduced by all three nematode species. The results show that the root-knot nematode species that are most common in California may cause significant damage in the cut-flower production of lisianthus.
Laurie E. Boyden* and Peter Cousins
Development of rootstocks resistant to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) is a priority in grape breeding. The N allele, present in Harmony and Freedom rootstocks, confers resistance to N-avirulent strains of Meloidogyne. Extensive planting of rootstocks containing N has led to the development of N-virulent nematode strains, prompting a search for new resistance alleles. A seedling population derived from Vitis nesbittiana Comeaux was evaluated to investigate the genetic control of nematode resistance in this species. Hybridization with easily propagated rootstock selections will be required to utilize nematode resistance found in V. nesbittiana, a native of Mexico. The female parent of the population was 161-49C, a V. riparia × V. berlandieri hybrid rootstock. 161-49C does not contribute nematode resistance to its progeny. The male parent was V. nesbittiana DVIT 2236.12, an accession held in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm system. Nematode resistance of the 161-49C × V. nesbittiana DVIT 2236.12 population was assessed in greenhouse pot culture. Seedling roots were stained in an eosin-Y solution six weeks after inoculation with 1500 N-virulent M. arenaria juveniles. Resistance classes of seedlings were determined by assessing the degree of galling and number of egg masses per root system. Segregation in the seedling population was consistent with a 1:1 ratio of resistance to susceptibility, indicating that the V. nesbittiana accession is heterozygous for a dominant allele conferring resistance to N-virulent root-knot nematodes. The genetic relationship between this allele and the N allele has yet to be determined.
James A. LaMondia, Richard S. Cowles, and Lorraine Los
Surveys mailed to strawberry growers in 1999 determined the state of nematode and root weevil awareness and practices for their management. Based on the survey response, 41 fields representative of various practices were selected for sampling throughout Connecticut. Adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) were found in only 3 fields, but notched leaves characteristic of their feeding were found in 40 fields, indicating a greater prevalence than perceived by growers. The percentage of notched leaves was positively correlated with years in production, suggesting that it took some time for the flightless weevils to migrate into and to increase to damaging numbers in fields. In fields older than 2 years, bifenthrin insecticide reduced leaf feeding compared to untreated fields or to fields treated with endosulfan or azinphos-methyl. Lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans) were detected in 31 fields and were present in about 58% of plants. When present, nematode numbers were greater in the margins of poor areas than in adjacent healthy plants (735 vs. 428 per g root, respectively). Lesion nematode numbers were also greater in replanted strawberries than rotated fields (760 vs. 304, respectively). Soil fumigation with methyl bromide, but not methyl dithiocarbamate or the combination of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin, reduced nematode densities in the following strawberry crop. Based on an economic model, nematodes reduced accumulated profit over 4 fruiting years by more than the percent loss of fruit yield. Beneficial insect pathogenic nematodes, predominantly Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae, were found in 75% of fields to which commercially obtained nematodes had been applied, and to 14% of the remaining fields. Presence of naturally occurring insect pathogenic nematodes in strawberry fields may control root weevil populations and lead to more years of productivity.
Ronald F. Guyton, John R. Thompson, Royden Kimoto, Bernard A. Kratky, Oliver V. Holtzmann, Bill D. Thyr, and William W. Miller
Root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) juvenile population increased and carrot (Daucus carota L.) yield progressively decreased during eight continuous carrot crops grown over 37 months. When ‘Haifa’ and common white clovers (Trifolium repens L.) were cropped for 29 months and plowed down, two succeeding carrot crops suffered severe yield and quality losses and the juvenile nematode population in the soil in-creased greatly. However, there were significantly fewer juveniles in the soil and significantly higher yield and better quality of carrots when nematode-resistant ‘Nevada Synthetic XX’ and ‘Nevada Synthetic YY alfalfas (Medicago sativa L.) and continuous cultivation preceeded the carrots.
Kittipat Ukoskit, Paul G. Thompson, Gary W. Lawrence, and Clarence E. Watson
The inheritance of root-knot nematode race 3 [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] resistance was studied in 71 progenies of the F1 backcross population produced from the resistant parent `Regal' and the susceptible parent `Vardaman'. The distribution frequency of the progenies measured on total nematode number (eggs + juveniles) indicated a bimodal distribution with a ratio of 4 resistant: 1 susceptible. Based on this phenotypic ratio, the proposed genetic model was duplex polysomic inheritance (RRrrrr = resistant). Bulk segregant analysis in conjunction with the RAPD technique was employed to identify RAPD marker linked to the root knot nematode-resistant gene. Nine of 760 random decamer primers screened showed polymorphic bands. Primer OPI51500 produced a band in the resistant bulk, but not in the susceptible bulk. Estimated recombination frequency of 0.24 between the OPI51500 marker and the root-knot nematode-resistant gene indicated linkage.
J. A. Thies and A. Levi
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica) cause severe damage to watermelon and resistance has not been identified in any watermelon cultivar. In greenhouse tests, we evaluated 265 U.S. plant introductions (PIs) for nematode resistance (based on root galling and nematode reproduction), and identified 22 PIs of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides as moderately resistant to M. arenaria race 1. In subsequent tests, these 22 PIs exhibited low to moderate resistance to M. incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2. Three watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) cultivars (Charleston Gray, Crimson Sweet, and Dixie Lee), three C. colocynthis PIs, and four C. lanatus var. citroides PIs, all previously shown to be susceptible to M. arenaria race 1, were susceptible to M. incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2. The C. lanatus var. citroides PIs that are most resistant to both M. incognita and M. arenaria should be useful sources of resistance for developing root-knot nematode resistant watermelon cultivars.
John W. Potter and Adam Dale
Intraspecific crossing of `Guardian' and `Midway' cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) produced a family of genotypes, some of which suppressed root-lesion nematode [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb)] population counts and produced large berries and high yield. Unlike `Midway', `Guardian' also suppressed P. penetrans. Among several beach strawberry [Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch.] and woodland strawberry (Fragaria virginiana Duch.) genotypes, variation was found in resistance and tolerance to root-lesion nematodes. Three F. chiloensis genotypes showed tolerance, and at least two genotypes may be somewhat resistant. Three F. virginiana genotypes also were tolerant, and three were resistant. Also, one (`Little Cataraqui 4') combined root growth vigor with nematode resistance. We concluded that exploitable genetic diversity in vigor and reaction to root-lesion nematodes exists in wild Fragaria and in F. ×ananassa.
D. M. Sato, D. Schmitt, and J. DeFrank
Fourteen different nematicides were tested for efficacy against the rootknot nematode in edible ginger during the 1990 and 1991 seasons. The test site was located in Papaikou, Hawaii and on land previously cropped to ginger. Soil treated with methyl bromide formulations resulted in comparitively good yield and rootknot nematode control. Metam sodium at 100 gallons per acre appeared to be a good alternative nematicide for edible ginger.