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D.T. Lindgren

There has been a large increase in the use of native herbaceous prairie plants for ornamental purposes. They are also being used for cut flowers, medicinal purposes, and in restoration projects. To discuss the subject of breeding and selecting herbaceous plants for landscaping, it is convenient to divide the topic into three areas of interest: 1) selecting native ecotypes for use on specific sites; 2) selecting and breeding for nonnative/native plants for wildflower mixes; and 3) selecting, breeding and developing specific individual plants for ornamental/garden use. Native plant traits that are being evaluated at the Univ. of Nebraska West Central Center include competitiveness, pest tolerance, regional adaptation, flowering characteristics, foliage characteristics, proportionality of plants, ease of propagation, ease of establishment, and moisture requirements. In addition, research is being conducted at the West Central Center regarding genetic variation. For example, Dalea purpureum varies in height, foliage color, stems per plant, stem lodging, and time of flowering. Similar variation has been documented in Lithospermum, Calylophus, Penstemon, Liatris, and Echinacea, to name a few. Botanically, genetic variation has been documented within many native herbaceous species. However, plant breeders have done very little with these variations in genotypes, thus allowing considerable opportunity for breeding research with native herbaceous plants.

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Annelle W.B. Holder, Winston Elibox, and Pathmanathan Umaharan

biochemical variation and differences in aggressiveness among the native isolates. A more recent unpublished survey (2014) showed that all of the anthurium farms save one have collapsed due to the effects of either BLS, bacterial blight disease or both

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Margaret Wolf

Five Utah Native Plant Propagation workshops during Mar. 2005 supplied 100 participants with specialized containers and potting mix, native plant seed, resource booklet, lecture, and instructor supervision during the hands-on workshop portion. Forty-three participants responded to a Sept. 2005 follow-up survey. Seedling survival averaged 6.4 seedlings per tray of 72 cells, or 8.8%. Only 36% of the participants used the resource booklet after the workshop. Most survey respondents did not cite particular reasons for seedling failure. Seed propagation workshops are challenging due to: 1) wide variance in participants' horticultural experience; 2) limited materials and resources; and 3) inherent inconsistencies in native plant seed viability. Before attending future seed propagation workshops, registrants will receive seedling cultivation information to improve success rates.

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

Native’ spearmint, Mentha spicata L., is one of the two widely grown spearmints in the United States and throughout the world ( Bienvenu et al., 1999 ; Lawrence, 2006 ; Topalov, 1989 ). The other spearmint is ‘Scotch’ spearmint, which actually

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer and Anna F.G. Barker

A bibliography of references on Native American agricultural traditions is proposed to integrate horticulture into classroom teaching with a multidisciplinary approach. Five teaching themes are given as examples of using the references to incorporate horticultural activities across diverse disciplines such as mathematics, history, language arts, economics, and social sciences.

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Michael N. Dana

Interest in native plant species for general landscape planting, mitigation of environmental impact and ecological restoration plantings continues to expand with public awareness of environmental quality. An expanding area of opportunity exists for the landscape horticulture industry to supply non-traditional plant materials to support landscape planting with native species. To capitalize on the opportunity, horticulture and landscape architecture students and practitioners must become knowledgeable of species native to their region. Video is a useful medium for increasing such knowledge. This presentation will review the development, production, distribution and content of six video programs that survey the native herbaceous flora of Indiana prairies and woodlands. Each program is less than 30 minutes in length, to facilitate classroom use and presentation in broadcast formats. Botanically correct nomenclature is presented graphically as each species is introduced. The narration includes botanical, ecological and horticultural information, but emphasizes plant lore to increase interest for general audiences and provide memory clues for those attempting to learn the plants. This project, supported by the Indiana Association of Nurserymen, provides a good example of how horticultural industries can become leaders as the public expands its demand for improved environmental quality.

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James McConnell

Plants native to Guam are being evaluated for use in the Guam landscape. The selected plants are being propagated by seed and/or cutting. The genera currently being evaluated and propagated include Scaevola, Eleaocarpus, Ochrosia, Guamia, Pemphis, and Bikkia. Variation in flower color and floral fragrance were observed in Scaevola and selections have been made. There has been some difficulty establishing some of the plants in the landscape environment. There have been some significant insect problems occurring on established plants.

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Lance Stott, Lisa Rew, and Tracy Dougher

The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) has used hydroseeding, imprinting, and drill seeding methods to revegetate highway construction sites, with varying degrees of success. Ecological concerns, particularly in areas with high erosion potential, have led Caltrans to search for more-reliable plant establishment methods. One possibility is native sod, which should reduce erosion potential, and, the species would also be better suited to local environments, require less maintenance, and pose no invasive threat to adjacent ecosystems. In addition, the use of native sod may also reduce or prevent weed establishment. Our project aims to evaluate different native grass species mixes to determine the best species combinations for sod. We selected 21 species of native grasses in order to determine their suitability for sod production in six Californian ecoregions. Grasses were grown in six growth chambers that mimic the climate of the six ecoregions. Mixtures of varying species included either one rhizomatous species with three bunch grasses, one rhizomatous species and five bunch grasses, two rhizomatous species with three bunch grasses, or two rhizomatous species with five bunch grasses for each ecoregion. The mixtures were grown and tested for yield, species composition, and percentage of cover over time. At the end of the 6-month production time, a final harvest evaluated root depth and biomass as well as sod strength. Rhizomatous grasses, if planted with Bromus sp., were quickly overwhelmed. At the first harvest ground coverage was between 10% and 15% for all species mixes. Ground coverage increased over the production cycle, but maximum ground coverage remained less than 80% overall.

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Jack E. Staub, Matthew D. Robbins, Yingmei Ma, and Paul G. Johnson

the result of the broad range of flowering times, panicle size, leaf width and color, and plant form of modern cultivars, which allows for their use in horticultural applications ranging from formal gardens to informal native urban landscapes ( Wilson

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Jessica D. Lubell and Jacob A. Griffith Gardner

There is increased interest among ornamental plant growers to identify native shrubs that can be produced commercially for the nursery and landscape industry. Native shrubs must propagate readily from stem cuttings because this method yields uniform