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John McCallum, Gail Timmerman-Vaughan, Tonya Frew, and Adrian Russell

Developmental, environmental, and genetic factors affecting seed color were studied in the progeny of a cross between two white-flowered (aa) green cotyledon (ii) field peas (Pisum sativum L.): the pale large-seeded Marrowfat cultivar Primo and the greener small-seeded Prussian Blue OSU442-15. Changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid content during seed development of the parental genotypes were determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Both cultivars accumulated similar pigment quantities per seed, but pigment loss was greater during maturation of `Primo'. Bleached and unbleached mature seed tissues also were compared for pigment composition. Lutein was the predominant pigment in bleached cotyledons of both cultivars. Only trace amounts of pheophytins were detected in unbleached seed. In both genotypes, chlorophyll A : B ratios were ≈1:1 in seed coats compared to 3:1 in cotyledons. Objective measurements of seed color in terms of luminance (lightness) and chrominance (hue and saturation) were made in YUV color space by video image analysis. Inheritance of seed color was studied in an F2 population derived from the `Primo' × `OSU442-15' cross and inbred descendants. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed color were localized by interval mapping using a linkage map of 199 molecular markers spanning most of the genome and by bulked segregant analysis and selective genotyping. Four genomic regions affecting seed color were detected. A major gene accounting for 61% of the phenotypic variance in seed lightness (Y luminance component) was identified on linkage group V linked to r locus. Another major gene, which accounted for 56% of the phenotypic variance in seed hue (U chrominance component), was mapped to a linkage group containing group III and IV markers. A QTL with smaller effect on seed hue (U and V chrominance components) was detected on linkage group VII. Support for overdominant allelic interaction for a QTL on linkage group I, adjacent to the legumin locus Lg-J, was obtained by selective genotyping of the seed lightness distributional extremes.

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Neda Keyhaninejad, Richard D. Richins, and Mary A. O’Connell

, 2002 ). Diets deficient in vitamin A cause night blindness in humans ( Rao and Rao, 2007 ). Human macula pigments are a mixture of carotenoids, lutein, and other xanthophylls. These compounds prevent free radical production in the retina, protecting the

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Megan J. Bowman, David K. Willis, and Philipp W. Simon

), lycopene β-cyclase (LCYB), and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) were analyzed using RT-qPCR. With the exception of LCYE in the lutein-accumulating yellow cultivar Yellowstone, and ZDS1in the lycopene-accumulating red cultivar Nutrired ( Clotault et al., 2008

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Young-Hwan Shin, Rui Yang, Yun-Long Shi, Xu-Min Li, Qiu-Yue Fu, Jian-Liang Lu, Jian-Hui Ye, Kai-Rong Wang, Shi-Cheng Ma, Xin-Qiang Zheng, and Yue-Rong Liang

, violaxanthin (V), and lutein. The light-sensitive albino cultivars have the highest level of V among the tested cultivars. However, the level of β-carotene in light-sensitive albino cultivars was much lower than those in normal cultivar Fudingdabai and

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Cristián Vela-Hinojosa, Héctor B. Escalona-Buendía, José A. Mendoza-Espinoza, Juan M. Villa-Hernández, Ricardo Lobato-Ortíz, Juan E. Rodríguez-Pérez, and Laura J. Pérez-Flores

lycopene (≈90%), β-carotene (5% to 10%) and lutein (1% to 5%), with only trace concentrations of other compounds ( Stahl and Sies, 2003 ). In recent years, the biosynthetic pathways of carotenoid, tocopherol, and chlorophyll have been studied because of

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James C. Fulton, Francisco O. Holguin, Robert L. Steiner, and Mark E. Uchanski

. HPLC allowed for the comparison of the carotenoid pigments lutein, capsanthin, and zeaxanthin among the four tissue categories. Lutein concentration was observed to follow general trend 2. Its concentration in symptomatic tissue (iv) was significantly

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Allan F. Brown, Gad G. Yousef, Ivette Guzman, Kranthi K. Chebrolu, Dennis J. Werner, Mike Parker, Ksenija Gasic, and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lesser amounts of additional related compounds ( Dalla Valle et al., 2007 ). As would be expected, yellow-fleshed peaches generally contain ≈10-fold levels of β - carotene and β−cryptoxanthin than their white-fleshed counterparts

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Carlos Calderón-Vázquez, Mary L. Durbin, Vanessa E.T.M. Ashworth, Livia Tommasini, Kapua K.T. Meyer, and Michael T. Clegg

environments ( Amar et al., 2007 ), making β-sitosterol a good candidate for selection in rapeseed. Total carotenoids in avocado are mainly composed of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin with lutein being the largest component ( Lu

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Rolston St. Hilaire

via the violaxanthin and lutein photoprotective mechanisms ( Bowen-O’Connor et al., 2013 ). Clonal Propagation and Evaluation Cuttings were veneer-grafted onto sugar maple scions and then planted into replicated experimental blocks in three different

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Saki Toshima, Marika Fujii, Momoko Hidaka, Soya Nakagawa, Tomonari Hirano, and Hisato Kunitak

those of pure standards of lutein, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene. The results are expressed as micrograms per 100 g FW. The measurement of sample extracts was replicated three times. Statistical analysis. All experimental results