Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to examine fruit detachment force and plant parameters of two strains of Tabasco (Capsicum frutescens) at different stages of maturity. The detachment force of mature red `McIlhenny Select' at the fruit-receptacle detachment area was less than that of breaker and mature green fruit. `McIlhenny Select' separated cleanly at all stages of maturity. A wild type Tabasco strain `HP' did not abscise at the red mature stage; fruit detachment force was greater than that of `McIlhenny Select'. The detachment force of mature green and breaker `HP' fruit were similar to those of `McIlhenny Select' at the same stage of maturity. Fruit weight, length, and width of the two tabasco strains were not different. The utility of the `McIlhenny Select' and `HP' strains for physiological studies of pepper fruit abscission will be discussed.
Carl E. Motsenbocker and Kay P. Gersch
Duane W. Greene, Wesley R. Autio, and Paul Miller
Postbloom sprays of BA thinned `McIntosh', `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Mutsu, `Empire', and `Abas' apples. BA at 75 to 100 mg·liter-1 was equal to NAA at 6 to 7.5 mg·liter-1 or carbaryl at 600 to 800 mg·liter-1. BA increased fruit size, flesh firmness, and soluble solids concentration (SSC) on all cultivars evaluated. Since BA is applied during the time when cell division is occurring, it is concluded that the increased fruit size and flesh firmness were due to Increased cell numbers. Increased SSC was not due solely to increased leaf: fruit ratio. Thinning with BA was additive with other chemical thinners and no interactions were found on fruit abscission. In most eases, BA increased return bloom. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)1H-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)]; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate (carbaryl); butanedioic acid mono(2,2dimethylhydrazide (daminozide); (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).
Alireza Talaie*, Ali Gharaghani, and Mohammad Ali Asgari
In this research the effect of four clonal rootstocks (B9, M9, M26, and MM106) on growth characteristics, flowering and fruiting, and fruit quality and quantity of `Golden Smoothee' apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) were studied during 2001 and 2003. Trees were 8 years old at the beginning of study. Experiments were planned in randomized complete-block design with four treatments (four rootstocks) and four replications. Rootstocks had significant effects on all growth characteristics. The highest tree height, shoot growth, and tree cross-sectional area were found on MM106; with B9 was the least and M9 and M26 were intermediate. The effect of year, and interaction of year on rootstocks were nonsignificant. Rootstock has highly affected flowering and fruiting characteristics. The highest flowering efficiency related to M9 and B9. The highest primary and secondary fruit set and fruit set efficiency found with M9 and M26. The highest preharvest fruit abscission observed with M26. The M9 had the least preharvest fruit abscission. Yield of M9 was the highest and B9 was the least. The M9 has the most yield efficiency and MM106 had the least. Effect of year was significant in many characteristics related to flowering and fruiting. Generally, trees had better conditions in first year. Among fruit quantitative treatments, rootstock only affected fruit weight significantly. Fruit harvested from B9 had the least weight and other rootstocks had similar fruit weight. Generally rootstock had no noticeable effect on fruit quantity and quality.
Patricia Garriz, Graciela Colavita, Hugo Alvarez, and Valeria Blackhall
Apple fruit abscission shortly before harvest is a frequent, recurring problem, thereby reducing potential yield. The synthetic auxin 2 (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4-DP) was evaluated for its effect on reducing fruit drop and influencing ripening of `Braeburn' apples, in the High Valley region of Río Negro, Argentina (38°56'S, 67°59'W). Thirteen-year-old apple trees grafted on MM 111 rootstock were sprayed on 4 Mar. 2005, at 162 days after full bloom (DAFB) with 2,4-DP at doses of 0.05% and 0.10% (v/v), applied with an airblast sprayer, until runoff. Each tree was trained to palmette and planted in a single row from north to south with spacing of 2.3–4.0 m. The following measurements were performed: a) accumulated fruit drop, twice per week and b) maturity indices, weekly. Samples of uniform-size fruits were assessed for maturity (n = 20 per date and treatment), from 167 (commercial harvest) to 195 DAFB. On 23 Mar. (at 181 DAFB), cumulative fruit drop for control treatment was 19.9%, whereas 2,4-DP significantly reduced it to 4.90% and 2.94% at 0.05% and 0.10% (v/v), respectively. Reduction in the drop was also significant later, and 2,4-DP at both doses controlled drop comparably. The synthetic auxin did not affect fruit quality and maturation, based upon flesh firmness, starch degradation, and soluble solids concentration. We conclude that 2,4-DP is an effective drop control compound and it is useful as a management tool to increase yield by reducing fruit abscission and to extend the harvesting window of `Braeburn' apples, since it does not affect ripening. Delaying harvest may provide flexibility for scheduling of labor, fruit processing and packaging, cold storage, and marketing.
Krista C. Shellie and David Wolf
“Netted” (Cucumis melo var. reticulatus Naud.) cantaloupes typically abscise when mature, and have a shorter postharvest life than “Honeydew” (Cucumis melo var. inodoris Naud.) -type melons. The amount of ethylene and carbon dioxide produced by two cantaloupe genotypes (slipping), one Honeydew genotype (non-slipping), and the F1 hybrids derived from the slipping x non-slipping genotypes were measured during ripening to understand the genetic control of ethylene and fruit abscission. Sterile, nondestructive gas sampling ports inserted into 20-day-old fruit were used to extract samples from the central cavity of the melons and monitor ethylene and carbon dioxide from day 30 until the fruit was horticulturally mature. Honeydew melons had a lower rate of respiration during maturation and ripening than Netted melons, and Netted melons produced 10-fold more ethylene during ripening than Honeydew types. F1 fruit produced ethylene at levels similar to the Netted parent, abscissed 2 to 4 days later than the Netted parent, yet respired during maturation and ripening like the Honeydew-type parent. Ethylene production, respiration, and abscission appear to be controlled by dominant gene action.
Alan N. Lakso and Michael D. White
Several models of apple tree carbon balance have been developed, including a simplified model by our lab. Tree photosynthesis and total dry matter production is the best characterized except for root growth and root respiration. Once dry matter is produced and partitioned to the different organs (another key problem for modeling), the effects of carbon availability to the fruits on their growth and abscission needs to be modeled. Our approach is based on an observed relationship between increased abscission with decreased fruit growth rate of populations of fruit. From several empirical studies of fruit growth and abscission during chemical thinning or imposed stress early in the season, a relationship was found between % abscission and classes of fruit growth rates. It appears to be best if the fruit growth rate is expressed as a percent of the growth rate of the fastest growing group of fruits in each study. Thus in the model the fruit growth allowed by the available carbon each day is compared to a pre-determined maximum growth rate for the cultivar. The percent-of-maximum growth rate then determines how much abscission will occur. Then the growth rate of the remaining fruit is calculated. Additional parameters of the model allowed for a multiple-day buffer of carbon availability, an imposed fruit number reduction (i.e. equivalent to hand thinning), and temperature effects. Although there are more improvements planned, the initial tests have been promising with the simulations showing realistic patterns of fruit abscission and fruit growth.
Jacqueline K. Burns, Luis V. Pozo, Covadonga R. Arias, Brandon Hockema, Vidhya Rangaswamy, and Carol L. Bender
Coronatine is a polyketide phytotoxin produced by several plant pathogenic Pseudomonas spp. The effect of coronatine on abscission in Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck `Hamlin' and `Valencia' orange fruit, leaves, fruitlets, and flowers was determined. Coronatine at 200 mg·L-1 significantly reduced fruit detachment force of mature fruit, and did not cause fruitlet or flower loss in `Valencia'. Cumulative leaf loss was 18% with coronatine treatment. Coronafacic acid or coronamic acid, precursors to coronatine in Pseudomonas syringae, did not cause mature fruit abscission. Ethylene production in mature fruit and leaves was stimulated by coronatine treatment, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) and 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase (12-oxo-PDAR) gene expression was upregulated. A slight chlorosis developed in the canopy of whole trees sprayed with coronatine, and chlorophyll content was reduced relative to adjuvant-treated controls. Leaves formed after coronatine application were not chlorotic and had chlorophyll contents similar to controls. Comparison of coronatine to the abscission compounds methyl jasmonate, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-pyrazole and ethephon indicated differences in ethylene production and ACO and 12-oxo-PDAR gene expression between treatments. Leaf loss, chlorophyll reduction and low coronatine yield during fermentation must be overcome for coronatine to be seriously considered as an abscission material for citrus.
S.L. Breitkreutz and J.A. Flore
Pest damage to apple fruit is intolerable by our current standards. However, the effects of foliar damage on the plant's physiological status and fruit quality are not thoroughly understood. The objective of this work was to determine the time during the growing season when apple trees are most susceptible to foliar damage. Terbacil (50 ppm), an inhibitor of photosynthesis, was applied to 8-year-old `Gala'/Mark planted at 6 ×18-foot spacing or 14-year-old `Empire'/M106 planted at 18 × 20-foot spacing at 20- to 30-day intervals from petal fall until harvest to simulate environmental or biological stress. The work was conducted from 1995 through 1998. Photosynthesis was inhibited by 50% to 80% within 24 h of application of Terbacil but recovered to control levels 10 to 14 days after. The fruit were evaluated at harvest for total yield, size of fruit, and fruit number. Terbacil induced fruit abscission when applied at petal fall but not at later dates. The earlier the application, the greater the effect on current seasons yield and fruit size depending on crop load. For `Gala', there was a reduction in yield at petal fall of 30% to 70% over the control trees. Further detailed results will be presented.
J. A. Flore and Edgardo Disegna
Terbacil an inhibitor of photosynthesis was applied to 10-year-old `Redchief' apple trees in the field carrying a heavy or light fruit crop, or to trees in pots. This simulated the effect of photosynthetic inhibition (PN-I) by either biotic or abiotic stress. Current as well as the next season's crop and physiology were determined. The magnitude and duration of photosynthetic inhibition was dose-dependent. A concentration of 63 mg·liter–1 was applied at 15-day intervals from bloom through harvest. Photosynthesis was in inhibited by 50% to 80% within 24 h of application, but recovered to control levels 10 to 14 days later. Terbacil at 15 and 30 DAFB induced fruit abscission, but not at later dates. The earlier the application the greater the effect on current seasons yield and fruit size. There was also a significant interaction with crop load. There were no significant effects on fruit soluble solids, fruit firmness, fruit density, or fruit color at harvest. Terbacil did not affect cold acclimation, deep winter hardiness, or deacclimation. Pn inhibition at 30, 60, 80, and 100 DAFB reduced return bloom.
Hybrid honey dew muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. var. inodorus Naud.) fruit physiological maturity, the period of maximized or greatest compositional changes, occurs by 40 days after anthesis (DAA). Fruit maturity was determined by major changes in quality attributes: glucose, fructose, sucrose, and moisture content, firmness, mass, volume, and hypodermal-mesocarp plasma membrane specific H+-ATPase (E.C. 188.8.131.52) activity. Fruit ripening occurs by 50 DAA, as determined by additional changes in the mentioned quality attributes, and by fruit abscission at 50 DAA. Fruit senescence begins with decreases in almost all quality attributes, H+-ATPase activity, protein content, by the largest increase in the total free sterol : total phospholipid (FS:PL) ratio, and in hypodermal-mesocarp lipoxygenase (E.C. 184.108.40.206) activity. Physicochemical profiles of hybrid honey dew muskmelon fruit during growth and maturation should be useful to schedule commercial harvest of mature fruit, which is necessary for maximum honey dew fruit quality, extended shelf-life, and enhanced consumer satisfaction.