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Konstantinos Kazantzis, Thomas Sotiropoulos, Simeon Marnasidis, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Aliki Xanthopoulou, and Panagiotis Madesis

. Trees of ‘Tsolakeiko’ are semivigorous with a semiupright growth habit. One-year-old shoots are very vigorous, especially on young trees. Trees become productive from the third year, especially when grafted on dwarfing rootstocks. Flower buds are conical

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Tiffany L. Law and Gregory A. Lang

Offshoots canopy architecture. Heavy crop loads can stunt trees on dwarfing rootstocks, with fruit production significantly reducing shoot growth ( Kappel, 1991 ; Whiting and Lang, 2004 ). Quickly filling canopy fruiting volume is essential to attain full

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Adolfo Rosati, Andrea Paoletti, Raeed Al Hariri, Alessio Morelli, and Franco Famiani

( Geisler and Ferree, 1984 ); dwarfing rootstocks ( Avery, 1970 ; Preston, 1958 ); and shoot removal, chemical control of vegetative growth, or both ( Mulas et al., 2011 ; Rugini and Pannelli, 1992 ; Williams et al., 1986 ), all result in enhanced yield

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Young Soon Kwon, Soon-Il Kwon, Jeong-Hee Kim, Moo Yong Park, Jong Taek Park, and Jinwook Lee

, ‘M.9’ ( Fig. 2 ). There should be adequate numbers of branches during the young plant stage and dwarf rootstocks should be exposed at 5 cm from the ground when the ‘Arisoo’ scion is grafted with ‘M.9’ ( Rural Development Administration, 2018

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Yan Li, Peter M. Hirst, Yizhen Wan, Yingjiao Liu, Qian Zhou, Hua Gao, Yunzhong Guo, Zhengyang Zhao, Leicun Wang, and Mingyu Han

industry is transitioning to a greater use of dwarfing rootstock clones as both rootstocks and interstems ( Rong et al., 2011 ). Researchers throughout China are developing cultivars with high quality and rootstocks with high performance, both with disease

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Emily E. Hoover, Richard P. Marini, Emily Tepe, Wesley R. Autio, Alan R. Biggs, Jon M. Clements, Robert M. Crassweller, Daniel D. Foster, Melanie J. Foster, Peter M. Hirst, Diane Doud Miller, Michael L. Parker, Gregory M. Peck, Jozsef Racsko, Terence L. Robinson, and Michele R. Warmund

properly when grown in regions colder than zone 7a ( Crassweller, 2008 ; Marini, 1996 ). Rootstock survival and performance also vary with soil type and climate. For example, the dwarfing rootstock ‘Budagovsky 9’ (B.9) produces trees of similar size in

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Gemma Reig, Jaume Lordan, Stephen Hoying, Michael Fargione, Daniel J. Donahue, Poliana Francescatto, Dana Acimovic, Gennaro Fazio, and Terence Robinson

-density apple orchards are established using dwarfing rootstocks such as ‘M.9’, ‘M.26EMLA’, or ‘B.9’ ( Webster, 1995 ), but these rootstocks lack winterhardiness, except for ‘B.9’, are susceptible to Phytophthora spp . root rot or fire blight bacterial

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Qingrong Sun, Meijuan Sun, Hongyan Sun, Richard L. Bell, Linguang Li, Wei Zhang, and Jihan Tao

mutual agreement. ‘GM256’ is a cold-hardy and dwarfing apple rootstock, which was released by the Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science, Jilin, China ( Wang et al., 1993 ). ‘JM7’ is a disease-resistant and dwarfing rootstock which was released by Apple

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Yanrong Lv, Ibrahim I. Tahir, and Marie E. Olsson

such as the characteristics of the bark, production and movement of different plant hormones, and top-root relationships ( Ferree and Warrington, 2003 ; Rom and Carlson, 1987 ). Dwarfing rootstock ‘M.9’ and semi-dwarfing rootstock ‘MM.106’ are commonly

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Todd C. Einhorn, Debra Laraway, and Janet Turner

al., 1986 ). When used in combination with dwarfing rootstocks, heavy fruit set can severely limit both vegetative development and fruit quality of sweet cherry ( Edin et al., 1996 ); a scenario that would likely be amplified given the precocity and