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Mengzi Zhang, Jie Yang, Huitang Pan, and Brian J. Pearson

. Dwarfing effects of chlormequat chloride (CCC) and uniconazole (UNI) on potted baby primrose ‘Fragrant Luolan’ and ‘Red Star’. Plants were foliar-sprayed with water (as the control), CCC at 250, 500, and 750 ppm, and UNI at 25, 50, and 75 ppm. This photo

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Zhanao Deng, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Natalia A. Peres

encouraged to prolong their life. Availability The caladium cultivars UF-331 and UF-340 will be sold and marketed under the trade name Angel Wing Dwarf Tricolor and Angel Wing Dwarf White. A plant patent application will be submitted to the U

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Yong-Koo Kim

As Korea is located 33-38° latitude in north hemisphere, her capacity availing deciduous fruit growing is enough in allowing successful production of persimmon, oriental pear, jujube and dwarf apple. There are two kind of persimmons, sweet and astringent, and the majority of persimmon production is the sweet one owing to the higher price and consumer preferences. Astringent persimmons are dried after peeling and served as a traditional, popular fruit punch in Korea. The most popular oriental pear cultivar in Korea is Shinko (`Niitaka'), occupying 38% of the total pear growing area. This cultivar is extending its popularity in world trade with 4,361 tons of fruits exported to Taiwan, Singapore, USA, Netherlands, etc. The future of oriental pear is quite promising along with the increasing acknowledgement of its crispness among westerners as well as oriental people living abroad. Production status of jujube and dwarf apple, mostly `Fuji' and `Tsugaru' on M.26 rootstock, will be presented with describing merits and problems of their production.

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S. Hanif-Khan, R.C. Bullock, P.J. Stoffella, J.K. Brecht, C.A. Powell, and H.J. McAuslane

Silverleaf whitefly (SLW) (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) feeding has been associated with development of tomato irregular ripening (TIR) symptoms. Four dwarf cultivars of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) were infested with adult SLW to observe oviposition preference, tolerance and TIR symptom development. Oviposition preference was observed at low SLW population. Florida Petite was the most preferred and Micro-Tom the least preferred cultivar, with Florida Lanai and Florida Basket intermediate. Each cultivar exhibited TIR symptoms associated with feeding by the SLW. TIR fruit symptoms were expressed as longitudinal red streaks with yellow, green, pink or red blotches externally, and white, yellow or green tissue internally. External TIR symptoms ranged from 32% (Micro-Tom) to 82% (Florida Basket). However, external symptoms disappeared from 34% (Florida Lanai) to 56% (Micro-Tom) of the fruits during ripening. SLW infested plants had 82% (Florida Lanai) to 99% (Florida Basket) of fruits with internal white tissue regardless of external symptoms. Tomatoes with TIR symptoms rarely ripened to a mature red, and sometimes had empty locules, were smaller in size and were seedless.

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Sara Spiegel, Dan Thompson, Aniko Varga, and Delano James

An apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolate was detected by TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR in an ornamental dwarf flowering almond (Prunus glandulosa Thunb.). This plant, maintained at the Centre for Plant Health, Sidney, B.C., Canada, has been showing transient leaf symptoms during the spring seasons. A 390-bp fragment and a 1,350-bp product, in the RNA polymerase and the coat protein viral coding regions, respectively, were amplified by RT-PCR from the infected plant. A sequence comparison of the 390-bp fragment of this ACLSV isolate (designated as AL1292) with other published isolates, revealed a similarity of 81% to 84% at the nucleotide level and 88% to 100% at the amino acid level. In contrast to other ACLSV isolates, AL1292 has an exceptionally narrow range of experimental herbaceous and woody hosts, as determined by mechanical and graft inoculation assays. These standard bioassays may not be effective for the detection of the AL1292 isolate because of its limited host range. The results we report in this paper confirm P. glandulosa as a natural host of this virus. Currently it is not known how ACLSV is spread, other than by bud-grafting and possibly by root grafts. The use of virus-tested source plants for the preparation of planting material will minimize its spread.

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Wesley Autio*, LaMar Anderson, Bruce Barritt, Robert Crass-weller, David Ferree, George Greene, Scott Johnson, Joseph Masabni, Michael Parker, and Gregory Reighard

`Fuji' apple trees [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var domestica (Borkh.)] on nine dwarfing rootstocks (CG.4013, CG.5179, G.16N, G.16T, M.9 NAKBT337, M.26 EMLA, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3) were planted at 10 locations (CA, KY MO NC OH 2 in PA SC UT and WA) under the direction of the NC-140 Multistate Research Project. After four growing seasons (through 2002), largest trees were on CG.4013. Smallest trees were on M.9 NAKBT337, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3. Trees on CG.5179, G.16 N, G.16T, and M.26 EMLA were intermediate. Cumulative root suckering was greatest from trees on CG.4013 and similar from the other rootstocks. CG.4013, CG.5179, and G.16T resulted in the greatest yields per tree in 2002, and M.26 EMLA, M.9 NAKBT337, Supporter 2, and Supporter 1 resulted in the lowest. Cumulatively, CG.4013 resulted in the greatest yields per tree, and M.26 EMLA resulted in the lowest. Rootstock did not affect yield efficiency in 2002, but cumulatively, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3 resulted in the most efficient trees, and M.26 EMLA the least. Fruit weight in 2002 or on average was not affected by rootstock. Limited data will be presented on CG.3041, CG.5202, and CG.5935, which are planted only at some locations. Data for the fifth season (2003) will be presented.

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Wesley Autio*, John Cline, Robert Crassweller, Charles Embree, Elena Garcia, Emily Hoover, Kevin Kosola, Ronald Perry, and Terence Robinson

`McIntosh' apple trees [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var domestica (Borkh.)] on 10 dwarfing rootstocks (CG.3041, CG.4013, CG.5179, CG.5202, G.16N, G.16T, M.9 NAKBT337, Supporter 1, Supporter 2, and Supporter 3) were planted at 10 locations (MA, MI MN NS 2 in NY ON PA VT and WI) under the direction of the NC-140 Multistate Research Project. After four growing seasons (through 2002), trees on CG.5202 and CG.4013 were significantly larger than those on all other rootstocks. Smallest trees were on M.9 NAKBT337. Trees on other rootstocks were intermediate. Rootstock did not influence cumulative root suckering. Yield per tree in 2002 was greatest from trees on CG.4013 and lowest from trees on M.9 NAKBT337; however, cumulatively, trees on M.9 NAKBT337 and CG.4013 yielded the most. Yield efficiency in 2002 was not affected by rootstock. Cumulatively, rootstock had very little effect, but trees on CG.5202 were the least efficient. In 2002, M.9 NAKBT337, CG.3041, and Supporter 2 resulted in the largest fruit, and CG.5179 resulted in the smallest. On average, M.9 NAKBT337 resulted in the largest fruit, and G.16T resulted in the smallest. Limited data will be presented on CG.5935 and M.26 EMLA, which are planted only at some locations. Data for the fifth season (2003) will be presented.

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Jay Frick, S. Suzanne Nielsen, and Cary A. Mitchell

Effects of N level (15 to 30 mm), time of N increase (14 to 28 days after planting), and planting density (1163 to 2093 plants/m2) were determined for crop yield responses of dwarf, rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica napus L., CrGC 5-2, Genome: ACaacc). Crops were grown in solid-matrix hydroponic systems and under controlled-environment conditions, including nonsupplemented (ambient) or elevated CO2 concentrations (998 ± 12 μmol·mol-1). The highest seed yield rate obtained (4.4 g·m-2·day-1) occurred with the lowest N level (15 mm) applied at the latest treatment time (day 28). In all trials, CO2 enrichment reduced seed yield rate and harvest index by delaying the onset of flowering and senescence and stimulating vegetative shoot growth. The highest shoot biomass accumulation rate (55.5 g·m-2·day-1) occurred with the highest N level (30 mm) applied at the earliest time (day 14). Seed oil content was not significantly affected by CO2 enrichment. Maximum seed oil content (30% to 34%, dry weight basis) was obtained using the lowest N level (15 mm) initiated at the latest treatment time (day 28). In general, an increase in seed oil content was accompanied by a decrease in seed protein. Seed carbohydrate, moisture, and ash contents did not vary significantly in response to experimental treatments. Effects of N level and time of N increase were consistently significant for most crop responses. Planting density was significant only under elevated CO2 conditions.

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Hisayo Yamane, Megumi Ichiki, Ryutaro Tao, Tomoya Esumi, Keizo Yonemori, Takeshi Niikawa, and Hino Motosugi

×). Arrows indicate the peak of the relative nuclear DNA content. TTN = ‘Totsutanenashi’; HTN = ‘Hiratanenashi’. Dwarf growth characteristics of ‘Totsutanenashi’. TTN had a larger number of flowers and fruits per shoot than HTN (data not shown

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Costanza Zavalloni, Adriana Nikoloudi, and James A. Flore*

This study was conducted to determine whether standard and dwarfing sweet cherry rootstocks under water deficit conditions respond differently relative to plant growth and gas exchange parameters, water-use efficiency, and leaf carbon isotope composition. One-year-old potted sweet cherry cv. `Rainier' grafted on the standard rootstock `Mazzard' and on the dwarfing rootstock `Gisela 5' were compared under two different water treatments: 1) well-watered, which received daily 100% of the amount of water lost by ET, and 2) a water deficit treatment, which received 50% of the water applied to the control. Relative shoot growth rate, leaf emergence rate and cumulative leaf area were recorded every three to seven days during the experiment. Leaf net carbon dioxide assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, internal CO2 concentration, and WUE were measured daily for the duration of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, leaf samples were collected to determine leaf carbon isotope composition. The growth parameters measured were affected similarly in the two rootstocks indicating a similar degree of sensitivity to water deficit in the genotypes tested. Cumulative leaf area was affected earlier by water deficit than relative shoot growth, and leaf emergence rate. Gas exchange parameters were affected earlier than growth parameters. Overall, WUE was not significantly different between dwarfing and standard rootstocks, and did not appear to increase under water deficit condition, indicating that irrigation should be considered as an important practice in sweet cherry orchards, especially when dwarfing rootstocks are selected.