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Margaret Pooler and P.W. Simon

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an obligate apomict which reproduces almost exclusively by means of division of underground cloves or by propagation of topsets. The occurrence of viable, sexually-derived garlic seeds is rare. In order to assess the factors that limit garlic seed production, variables that affect flower initiation and development were studied. The effects on flowering of daylength, growing temperature, bulb and plant cold storage conditions, and cultivar were examined by observing flower development in plants grown under controlled greenhouse conditions. Correlations between isozyme markers and flowering, fertility, and morphological markers will be presented for a diverse collection of garlic clones, including six sexually-derived garlic plants.

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Philio A. Stack and Francis A. Drummond

A biointensive IPM program began in 1991 in UM's 12,000 ft2 research/teaching greenhouses. Efficacy, economics and practicality of multiple natural enemy releases to control greenhouse arthropod pests in diverse-crop ranges were assessed in 1991-93. Both UM lab-reared and commercial insectary-produced natural enemies were used. Environmental constraints, natural enemy quality, daylength and short crop cycles limited biocontrol. Predators and parasites were most effective when compatible environmental parameters, cultural practices and biorational pesticides were used. Informing greenhouse users about natural enemy recognition and conservation were also important considerations. Rearing and release techniques and compatible systems are discussed.

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Royal D. Heins and James Faust

Photoperiod studies in a greenhouse usually require that the natural photoperiod be modified to increase or decrease the daylength. Modification involves using lights to extend the daylength or using some opaque material (e.g., black sateen cloth or black plastic) to shorten the photoperiod by excluding light. Air temperatures under the material can deviate from those of the surrounding air. It is common knowledge that when plants are covered by the cloth prior to sunset, solar radiation will increase the temperature under the it. It is not as widely known that temperature under the cloth will be lower than surrounding air temperature during the night. Radiant cooling of the material occurs when the greenhouse glazing material is cooler than the air temperature, resulting in cooling of the air and plants contained under the material. We have observed radiant cooling exceeding 150 W·m-2 when glazing is cold (-7°C), resulting in a temperature reduction under the material of up to 4°C. The difference in temperature between short-day and normal- or long-day treatments can lead to incorrect conclusions about the effect of photoperiod on plant development rate. Data will be presented with a sample control system to correct the problem.

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K.S. Yourstone and D.H. Wallace

This study was undertaken to determine whether plastochron index (PI), a mathematical construct that quantifies shoot development, can be applied to indeterminate bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Length measurements of the middle trifoliate leaflet were the basis of the PI calculation. The expansion of each middle trifoliate leaflet at every node on each plant tested was measured over time to determine whether the growth pattern of each leaflet fits the assumptions of the PI construct. Plants from five indeterminate bean genotypes were grown in two controlled environments: A constant 29C with 12-hr of daylength, and a constant 23C with 12-hr daylength extended to 14 hr with low light intensity. Early leaflet expansion was exponential for all five genotypes in both environments. Expansion rates of successive leaflets were also similar, although a few leaflets in three of the 10 genotype-environment combinations differed in their rates of expansion. Exponential and equal rates of expansion validate the calculation of the fractional component of the PI. In both environments, all genotypes exhibited an increasing rate of leaf initiation with time, which precludes the use of a simple linear slope in estimating rate of development.

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Thomas J. Molnar, Sara N. Baxer, and Joseph C. Goffreda

An eastern filbert blight resistance screening technique was developed that reduces the time required to identify susceptible Corylus avellana L. seedlings from the previously reported 14 to 16 months after inoculation to 6 to 7 months. To accomplish this, hazelnuts were harvested at maturity, treated with GA3, germinated, and grown for about 8 weeks at 24 °C day/18 °C night with 16-hour daylengths. Seedlings were then moved to a humidity chamber and inoculated with ascospores of Anisogramma anomala (Peck) E. Müller 3 times over 2 weeks by misting until run off with a solution of 1 × 106 ascospores/mL in sterile distilled water. Following inoculation, seedlings were returned to the original greenhouse for 8 weeks and then were moved to a 10 to 15 °C day/5 to 10 °C night greenhouse with natural daylengths for 4 weeks. They were then moved to a 4 °C cold room for 8 weeks to receive chilling. Afterwards, seedlings were returned to a greenhouse at 24 °C day/18 °C night where stromata development was visible in 4 to 6 weeks.

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Erik S. Runkle, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson

Twenty-four herbaceous perennial species were treated at 5C for 0 or 15 weeks. Critical photoperiods for flower initiation and development with and without a cold treatment were determined. Photoperiods were 10, 12, 14, 16, and 24 h of continuous light and 9 h plus a 4-h night interruption. Continuous photoperiodic treatments consisted of 9-h natural days extended with light from incandescent lamps. Response to cold and photoperiod varied by species; Scabiosa caucasica `Butterfly Blue' flowered without a cold treatment under all photoperiods after 8 to 10 weeks of forcing, but plant height increased from 14 to 62 cm as daylength increased. Rudbeckia fulgida `Goldsturm' flowered without cold after 13 to 15 weeks of forcing, but only under 16 hours of continuous light and night interruption treatments. Heuchera sanguinea `Bressingham Hybrids' did not flower without cold under any photoperiod but did flower under all photoperiods with cold. The only Lavendula angustifolia `Munstead Dwarf' plants that flowered without cold were those under 24-h continuous light; ≈60% flowered. After cold, some lavender plants flowered under all photoperiods, and the flowering percentage increased with increasing daylength.

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Richard W. Hartmann

F3 seeds from a cross of P. erosus (indeterminate, daylength sensitive) X P. ahipa (determinate, daylength insensitive) were received from M. Sorensen of the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University in Copenhagen, Denmark and sown in Hawaii in April, 1989 to increase the seed. The F4 seed were planted in March, 1990 and in October, 1990 (the normal time). All F4 progeny included both bush and vine plants in the summer planting, with more bush plants in the progeny of F3 bushes than vines. Likewise, the progeny of earlier-flowering F3 plants had a higher percentage of plants in flower in June than progeny of later-flowering ones. Root sizes and shapes were variable. The F4 progenies of the lines with the highest percentage of bushes and early-flowering plants were regrown in the summer of 1991 and selected for summer-flowering bush plants with acceptable root size. The selections were then grown in the winter of 1991 to test for performance during the normal growing season.

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Kiffnie M. Holt and Paul H. Jennings

Rooted chrysanthemum cuttings of five cultivars were transplanted into 6 1/2″ pots and greenhouse-grown for 7 weeks under natural daylength conditions. Plants were pinched back twice, on the 3rd week and the 5th week following transplanting. At 7 weeks, plants were arranged in a complete randomized-block design with four plants per cultivar per treatment and three replications. Spacing of the pots was kept constant through the duration of the experiment. The chemical group was sprayed with 2500 ppm B-Nine until run-off on the first day of treatment. The mechanical group was brushed 40 times, twice a day, for 5 weeks. The brushing mechanism was adjusted daily to account for growth so as to stimulate only the top 2 to 3 inches of the plant. Measurements of all plants were taken on the first and last day of the mechanical treatment. Data collected included height, internode length, and leaf area. Plants were then allowed to flower under the naturally shortening daylength, and the flowering date was recorded. The chemical and mechanically treated plants were shorter than the controls with a greater response occurring with the cultivars `Emily' and `Cheery Emily', which had a more open and upright growth habit. Cultivar response differences and effects on internode length, leaf area, and flowering date were noted and will be discussed.

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Thomas M. Davis, M. Sean Hill, Rebecca S. Gallien, and James E. Pollard

Strawberry flowering habit can be classified as either day-neutral (DN) or short-day (SD), depending on whether plants are insensitive or sensitive to photoperiod, respectively. Short-day (SD) cultivars produce mature fruit for just a few weeks in early summer. New floral initiation does not commence until triggered by the combination of short daylength and low temperature in the fall. Day-neutral (DN) cultivars do not require particular daylength conditions to initiate flowering, and so continue to produce flowers and mature fruit into late summer and early fall. We are using a map-based approach to characterize the genetic determinants of flowering habit in strawberry at both the diploid and octoploid levels. A recessive gene conferring DN flowering habit has been identified, and its position determined with respect to molecular markers on the Fragaria vesca genetic linkage map. We are using the technique of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) in an effort to find random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers linked to a putative dominant gene conferring the DN habit in the octoploid, cultivated strawberry, F. ánanassa.

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Thomas H. Boyle

Abbreviations: DAP, days after propagation; ND, natural daylengths; PWR, phylloclade weight ratio; 1°, primary; 2°, secondary, 3°, tertiary. Publication no. 3018 of the Massachusetts Agr. Exp. Sta. I wish to acknowledge partial support of this