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Maren J. Mochizuki, Anusuya Rangarajan, Robin R. Bellinder, Thomas Björkman, and Harold M. van Es

maintains 30% surface cover with cash or cover crop residue ( Soil Science Society of America, 2005 ), could potentially balance some of the negative production-based impacts on soils. In practice, conservation tillage can be achieved by minimizing tillage

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Natalie P. Lounsbury, Bonnie B. Lounsbury, Nicholas D. Warren, and Richard G. Smith

amounts of compost (e.g., resulting in mulch depths of 3–10 cm) to bury weed seeds and then deploy tarps between cash crop growing periods to manage weeds and crop residue. This strategy can be effective, but it is limited by the amount of high

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Sabrina J. Ruis, Humberto Blanco-Canqui, Ellen T. Paparozzi, and Russ Zeeck

use of PCS with peat is, however, limited. The few previous studies that have evaluated PCS or other crop residues suggested that they may produce biomass yields similar to those of peat ( Peterson and Jackson, 2014 ; Vaughn et al., 2011 , 2013

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Jeffrey P. Mitchell, Karen M. Klonsky, Eugene M. Miyao, Brenna J. Aegerter, Anil Shrestha, Daniel S. Munk, Kurt Hembree, Nicholaus M. Madden, and Thomas A. Turini

) and triticale ( Triticale hexaploide ) cover crops in the centers of 60-inch beds before transplanting. Their system was predicated by the use of subsurface drip irrigation ( Phene, 2010 ). The extent of the grass cover crop residue on the bed surface

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Dan TerAvest, Jeffrey L. Smith, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, Lori Hoagland, David Granatstein, and John P. Reganold

was removed from the study site. Soil and groundcover sampling and analysis. Starting 1 month after application of 15 N-enriched compost, samples of soil, wood chip duff, and cover crop residue were taken ≈15 cm from the base of each tree

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D. Grant McCarty II, Sarah E. Eichler Inwood, Bonnie H. Ownley, Carl E. Sams, Annette L. Wszelaki, and David M. Butler

early ASD research in The Netherlands (where this soil treatment is often referred to as biological soil disinfestation), several researchers examined impacts of ASD treatment using fresh grass or crop residues as a C source on soilborne pathogens of

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Howard F. Harrison Jr., D. Michael Jackson, Judy A. Thies, Richard L. Fery, and J. Powell Smith

systems that incorporate the use of a warm-season legume cover crop. The high level of nitrogen provided by cowpea cover crop residue is important in organic crop production where the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers is prohibited. Additionally, a

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Monica Ozores-Hampton, Francesco Di Gioia, Shinjiro Sato, Eric Simonne, and Kelly Morgan

return of nutrients to the soil with the crop residue; 4) analyze a posteriori the crop N status and fertilizer management following the principle of the %N crit and using the N nutrition index (NNI) proposed by Lemaire et al. (1989) . Materials and

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Monica Ozores-Hampton

application to improve soil quality. These include crop residues, animal manures, food waste, yard trimming waste, and organic agricultural byproducts ( Marriott and Zaborski, 2015 ; Stoffella et al., 2014 ). Proper composting, as defined by the NOP, is

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Roger Kubalek, David Granatstein, Doug Collins, and Carol Miles

small-scale or beginning farmers who do not have heavy equipment. The effects of tarping on crop residue decay have been variable and warrant further research. For example, Rylander et al. (2020 ) used a beaded string method to evaluate oat cover crop