In poplar (Populus deltoides) a 32kDa bark storage protein (BSP) accumulates during the fall, and is a major form of stored nitrogen during overwintering. This protein is induced by short-day (SD) photoperiod and may play an important role in nitrogen cycling in the plant. To determine the effect of plant nitrogen status upon BSP gene expression, poplar plants were grown in controlled environmental chambers under either SD or long-day (LD) photoperiods and watered with either 5, 10, 50, and 100 mM NH4NO3 for four weeks. [15N]-NH4NO3 was applied during the first and third weeks. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis were used to detect the relative amounts of BSP. RNA gel blot analysis was used to determine the changes in BSP gene expression. BSP accumulation was enhanced by increasing levels of nitrogen under both photoperiods, however, SD photoperiod appears to moderate the response. These results indicate that BSP gene expression is dependant upon the nutritional status of the plant. [15N] analysis will also be presented.
M. Pilar Bañados, Gary D. Coleman, and Tony H. H. Chen
Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Mark M. Alley
In recent years, several peat and pine bark (PB) alternative substrates have been developed and researched in the United States and throughout the world. The interest in new substrates is in response to the increasing cost and environmental issues
W. C. Morris and D. C. Milbocker
Suppressed growth and chlorotic leaves of Japanese holly (Ilex crenata, Thunb. ‘Hetzii’) when grown in hardwood bark, were caused by the uptake of excessive amounts of available Mn in bark leachates.
J. E. Klett, J. B. Gartner, and T. D. Hughes
Hardwood bark was used in combination with other materials as media for forsythia and juniper plants in containers with various growing procedures, bark sources, and fertility practices. Based on dry wt, the most rapid growth of forsythia was obtained in a bark and fine sand medium; whereas, the least growth was obtained in soil, peat, and perlite. However, pfitzer juniper plants under 2 different fertility regimes grew most rapidly in a bark, soil, and peat medium, slowest in a bark and torpedo #2 sand medium, and at an intermediate growth rate in soil, peat, and perlite. The standard mix (soil, peat, and perlite) was more acidic than the experimental mixes containing bark and sand. Chlorotic plants were more numerous in acidic mixes. Leaf tissue analyses from the plants grown in the peat amended bark and standard mix had higher Fe and Mn concn than plants grown in a bark-sand mix.
U. L. Yadava and S. L. Doud
Trunk bark thickness of 6 peach clones was significantly affected by seedling root-stocks of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Of the 7 rootstocks tested, Siberian C invariably induced the thickest bark in the scion while Lovell and Halford induced the thinnest scion bark. However, Siberian C grown as unbudded seedling trees did not produce thicker bark than the other rootstocks, similarly grown. The effect was not site- or cultivar-dependent.
Donald J. Cotter
Yields of greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) increased in bark or sawdust when the media had been prior cropped. Bark produced more marketable fruit than sawdust No unusual plant diseases were noted and root-knot nematode symptoms (a chronic problem in soil) were not observed on roots in either sawdust or bark.
Mary Lewnes Albrecht, Maurice E. Watson, and Harry K. Tayama
No differences were observed in the level of total acidity, total N and phenolic hydroxyl groups for samples of composted hardwood bark (fresh composted hardwood bark) and composted hardwood bark which had undergone further decomposition (aged composted hardwood bark). Humic acid was extracted from both fresh and aged composted hardwood barks. Yield of humic acid was greater for the aged bark, and there was an increase in the reactive functional groups which are involved in micronutrient chelation (carboxyl groups increased from 2.69 to 3.59 meq/g; phenolic hydroxyls increased from 7.82 to 10.29 meq/g). Alcoholic hydroxyl groups in fresh composted hardwood bark decreased from 2.03 to 0.01 meq/g with aging. From leaching studies it was determined that 0.5 meq/g Cu+2 was bound per gram of dried, fresh bark. Nutrient uptake studies showed that there was a reduction in the foliar nutrient concentration for Lolium multiflorum Lam. for increased cropping time when grown in aged, composted hardwood bark.
D. L. Airhart, N. J. Natarella, and F. A. Pokorny
Water absorption curves were developed for air dry peat-vermiculite and pine bark media. Data indicated 70-78% of moisture saturation was attained within 5 days with a peatvermiculite medium while 48 days were required to achieve 58-70% saturation with a milled pine bark medium. Increased water absorption of pine bark after 10 days of wetting suggested that a threshold moisture level within the bark particles is necessary if water uptake is to be enhanced. The threshold moisture content was established at 35% (wet wt basis).
F. A. Pokorny and Hazel Y. Wetzstein
Internal porosity, availability of internally adsorbed water, and root growth within a pine bark particle were studied. Internal pore spaces comprised about 43% to 44% of the volume of a pine bark particle. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of Coleus blumei Benth. and Vaccinium ashei Reade showed roots anchored on the exterior surface and developing within the bark particle. Seedling development (Raphanus sativus L.) in water-saturated pieces indicated that internally adsorbed water was available provided that roots developed within the bark particle. The quantity of available water remains to be determined.
Steve Thomas and Fred B. Perry Jr.
When a 200 ppm N solution as (NH4)2SO4 was percolated through a wet pine bark medium, 6 times the medium volume of the N solution was required to reach an equilibrium of N in the bark. Once equilibrium was reached, the water added, leaching of the ammonium ion was rapid. When twice the medium volume of water was passed through the medium, 85% of the ammonium ions were leached. After analysis of the leachate indicated no N being leached from the bark, 60 ppm of N remained in the bark.