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Carolina Uquillas, Eduardo Torres, Antonio Ibacache, and Bruno G. Defilippi

‘Iniagrape-one’ ( Vitis vinifera L. × Vitis vinifera L.) is a new and distinct midseason-ripening, blue–black table grape cultivar for export markets that stores well for up to three months under the proper conditions. This cultivar presents

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Michael J. Costello and W. Keith Patterson

grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.) water status on water consumption, vegetative growth and grape quality: An irrigation scheduling application to achieve regulated deficit irrigation Agr. Water Mgt. 97 956 964 Castellarin, S.D. Matthews, M.A. Di Gaspero, G

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Matthew W. Fidelibus

Growers in California’s San Joaquin Valley produced >25% of the world’s raisins in 2012, with a farm-gate value of >$590 million, making the United States the leading global producer of raisins. California’s traditional raisin-making method is a laborious process in which clusters of grapes (Vitis vinifera) are harvested by hand onto paper trays, which are left in the vineyard to dry. The drying fruit may need to be turned or rolled, tasks requiring manual labor, and the trays of dried raisins are also picked up by hand. Most California raisins continue to be made in this way, but in recent years, the declining availability and increasing cost of labor has prompted many growers to implement one of two mechanized production systems, “continuous tray” (CT) or “dry-on-vine” (DOV). In CT systems, machines are used to pick the berries, lay them onto a tray, and pick up the dried raisins. The CT system could be considered a short-term strategy: it is compatible with existing conventional ‘Thompson Seedless’ raisin vineyards and has been widely adopted. The DOV system could be considered a medium-term strategy: it is best suited for vineyards specifically designed for DOV, with early ripening grapevine cultivars on expansive trellis systems, which ensures timely drying, and capitalizes on the fact that sunlit row middles are not needed for fruit drying. Grapevine breeding programs are currently working toward the development of raisin grape cultivars with fruitful basal nodes, with fruit that dry naturally upon ripening. This is a long-term strategy to further reduce labor needs by enabling mechanical pruning in winter and eliminating the need for cane severance in the summer.

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Craig A. Ledbetter

‘Solbrio’ is an early midseason black-skinned seedless table grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) suitable for production where V. vinifera can be grown. The significant characteristics of ‘Solbrio’ are its consistent production of large crunchy textured

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Matthew W. Fidelibus, Stephen J. Vasquez, and S. Kaan Kurtural

California table grape (Vitis vinifera) growers cover the canopies of late-season varieties with plastic (polyethylene) covers to shield the fruit from rain. Green- or white-colored covers are commonly used, but there is lack of information whether either cover might be preferable based on canopy microclimate or fruit quality. In late September, ‘Redglobe’ (in 2011) and ‘Autumn King’ (in 2012) table grapevines were covered with green or white plastic, or left uncovered, and canopy microclimate, fungal and bacterial rot incidence, and fruit yield and quality at harvest, and after postharvest storage, were evaluated. Green covers were more transparent and less reflective than white covers, and daily maximum temperature difference in the top center of the canopies of grapevine with green covers was consistently >5 °C than that of grapevine subjected to other treatments, but covers had little effect on temperatures in the fruit zones, which were not enveloped by covers. Effects on relative humidity (RH) depended on location within the canopy and time of day; RH peaked in early morning and was at a minimum in late afternoon. All cover treatments had relatively similar peak RH in south-facing fruit zones and the top center of the canopy. However, in the north-facing fruit zone, vines with green covers had higher RH at night than vines subjected to other treatments. Both covers consistently reduced evaporative potential in the top center of the canopy, but not in fruit zones. Treatment effects on condensation beneath the covers were inconsistent, possibly due to differences in canopy size, variety, or season, but south-facing cover surfaces generally had less condensation than the top or north-facing surfaces. About 0.5 inch of rain fell on 5 Oct. 2011, but no rain occurred during the 2012 experiment. In 2011, green covers delayed fruit maturation slightly, but not in 2012. Covers did not affect vineyard rot incidence, the number of boxes of fruit harvested, or postharvest fruit quality in 2011, but fruit from covered grapevine had less postharvest rot in 2012 than fruit from noncovered grapevines, even though a measurable rain event occurred in 2011 but not in 2012. In conclusion, our results suggest that white covers may be preferable to green since green covers were associated with higher temperatures in both seasons and higher RH in the ‘Autumn King’ trial of 2012, but otherwise performed similarly.

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R. Paul Schreiner

noir’ ( Vitis vinifera L., Pommard clone, FPS 91) vineyards: a commercial vineyard (Benton Lane Vineyard; long. 44°17′ N, lat. 123°19′ W) planted in 1997 with spacing of 2.13 × 2.74 m (vine × row; 1700 vines/ha) and a research vineyard (Oregon State

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Renata Koyama, Ronan Carlos Colombo, Wellington Fernando Silva Borges, João Pedro Silvestre, Ibrar Hussain, Muhammad Shahab, Saeed Ahmed, Sandra Helena Prudencio, Reginaldo Teodoro de Souza, and Sergio Ruffo Roberto

, R.V. Lajolo, F.M. Genovese, M.I. 2007 Compostos fenólicos e capacidade antioxidante de cultivares de uvas Vitis labrusca L. e Vitis vinifera L Food Sci. Technol. 27 394 400 Ahmed, S. Roberto, S.R. Shahab, M. Colombo, R.C. Silvestre, J.P. Koyama

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Mohammed El-Sayed El-Mahrouk, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Salah El-Hendawy

Grape (Vitis vinifera) waste management is a major problem in juice production, but it could be transformed into a major opportunity if the waste was recycled and used as a nursery growing medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of four composts based on squeezed grape fruit waste (SGFW), mixed with coir or vermiculite in a one-to-one ratio by volume to form 13 growing media, for seed germination and seedling growth of ‘Mrs. Burns’ lemon basil (Ocimum basilicum var. citriodora). The final germination percentage (FGP), corrected germination rate index (CGRI), survival percentage, and seedling growth of ‘Mrs. Burns’ lemon basil were the variables measured. Pure SGFW reduced seed germination and seedling growth. The medium combining pure SGFW with vermiculite in a one-to-one ratio by volume was optimal for seed germination and seedling growth; in this medium the highest FGP, CGRI, survival rate, and growth parameters were recorded. The negative effects of pure SGFW composts were eliminated by mixing all composts with coir or vermiculite. These waste recycling media are low-cost products that can be beneficially used in nurseries on a commercial scale.

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Kang Hee Cho, Jung Ho Noh, Seo Jun Park, Se Hee Kim, Dae-Hyun Kim, and Jae An Chun

SCARs by direct sequencing of RAPD products: A practical tool for the introgression and marker-assisted selection of wheat Mol. Breeding 5 245 253 Karatas, H. Ağaoğlu, Y.S. 2010 RAPD analysis of selected local Turkish grape cultivars ( Vitis vinifera

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Joan R. Davenport, Markus Keller, and Lynn J. Mills

there are a number of different red and white wine grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) varieties grown. Mills et al. (2006) evaluated dormant-season bud cold hardiness of a number of established and promising varieties. Of the well-established white varieties