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Kurt Steinke, David R. Chalmers, Richard H. White, Charles H. Fontanier, James C. Thomas, and Benjamin G. Wherley

rain shelter returned to its center position. Grasses evaluated in this parent study included eight cultivars of bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon sp.) (‘Celebration’, ‘Common’, ‘GN-1’, ‘Grimes EXP’, ‘Premier’, ‘TexTurf’, ‘TifSport’, and ‘Tifway’); seven

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Reagan W. Hejl, Benjamin G. Wherley, and Charles H. Fontanier

use in the study: ‘Riley’s Super Sport’ (Celebration ® ) bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], ‘Palisades’ zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.), ‘Floratam’ st. augustinegrass [ Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze], and ‘SeaStar’ seashore

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Wayne W. Hanna, S. Kristine Braman, and Brian M. Schwartz

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Christian M. Baldwin, A. Douglas Brede, and Jami J. Mayer

With the emergence of glyphosate-tolerant cultivars, identifying management strategies not applicable with older cultivars need to be revisited. Objectives of these research trials were to quantify the growth regulation effects following a glyphosate application and to determine the safety of tank mixing glyphosate with another herbicide, various nitrogen (N) sources, and a plant growth regulator (PGR) on a glyphosate-tolerant perennial ryegrass [PRG (Lolium perenne L.)] cultivar, Replay. In the growth regulation trial, glyphosate was applied at 0 to 1.03 lb/acre, whereas PGRs flurpimidol, trinexapac-ethyl, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl + flurpimidol were applied at 0.50, 0.18, 0.37, and 0.09 + 0.22 lb/acre, respectively, on 15 July 2010 and 2 Aug. 2012. In the tank mixing trial, dicamba (0.50 lb/acre), urea (15 lb/acre N), and ammonium sulfate [AMS (15 lb/acre N)] were applied alone or tank mixed with glyphosate at 0 to 0.52 lb/acre. Tank mixing urea with glyphosate had minimal effect on PRG color, while adding AMS consistently improved color at the highest glyphosate rate of 0.52 lb/acre. Twenty days following a glyphosate application, only rates >0.40 lb/acre resulted in significant growth regulation compared with untreated plots. This study indicates that tank mixing glyphosate with another herbicide, a PGR, and various N sources appear safe to the glyphosate-tolerant PRG cultivar. Also, the growth regulating effects of glyphosate applications would serve as an additional benefit to annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) control reported in previous trials.

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Daniel Hargey, Benjamin Wherley, Casey Reynolds, Richard White, and Garrett Parker

Winter overseeding of dormant bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon sp.) athletic turf has been a common practice in the transition zone and southern United States. Winter overseeding provides an actively growing cool-season turfgrass stand that provides

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Bakir A. Al-Juboory

This experiment was conducted to determine effects of herbicides on the control of noxious perennial grass weeds. The results indicate that the rate, timing, duration and number of applications employed were the major factors in the successful control of perennial grass weeds such as Cogon Grass (Imperala cylindrica), Johnson Grass (Sorghum halepense), Bermuda Grass (Cynodon dactylon), Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus) and Common Red (Phragmites spp.), commonly found in Iraq growing both in cultivated fields and wild on uncultivated land.

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M.L. Elliott and M. Prevatte

Eco, Milorganite, Ringer, and Sustane natural organic fertilizers, alone or combined with the synthetic organic fertilizer isobutylidene diurea (IBDU), were compared with IBDU alone for their effect on a `Tifdwarf' hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] golf course putting green. Over the 2-year study period, no consistent differences were observed among the fertilizer treatments on the turfgrass growth parameters of quality, clipping weights, or root weights.

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K.L. Hays, J.F. Barber, M.P. Kenna, and T.G. McCollum

This study was conducted to determine rooting characteristics, root carbohydrate content, and performance of 10 bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] genotypes exposed to drought. A greenhouse study was conducted twice to determine root distribution and carbohydrate content throughout the soil profile during simulated drought stress. Root distribution among genotypes and accumulation of total nonstructural carbohydrate within roots differed with depths. Root mass at 30, 60, 90, and 150 cm was significantly correlated with turf quality during drought stress (r = 0.72, 0.86, 0.80, and 0.81, respectively) only for one of the two tests. Root carbohydrate distribution was not significantly correlated with turf quality for the selected bermudagrass genotypes.

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Julia Whitworth

The usefulness of cover crops for weed management in strawberries were evaluated. Wheat (Triticum aestevum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) were grown in individual pots then killed by tillage or herbicide and followed in the same pots by plantings of bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl.], or strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa `Cardinal'). Rye and wheat tilled into the medium generally increased the growth of strawberries and decreased the growth of bermuda grass. Rye and wheat residues appeared to suppress growth of weeds and strawberries when the residues remained on the medium surface. Crimson clover had little affect on the growth of weeds or strawberries. Yellow nutsedge and crabgrass were not significantly affected by cover crop residues.

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J.L. Nus and K. Shashikumar

Although the effect of cold winters on the severity of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.) spring dead spot (SDS) has been studied, information is needed concerning the effect of infection by fungi associated with SDS on the host's freezing resistance. A-22 bermudagrass was inoculated with Leptosphaeria korrae J. Walker & A.M. Smith and Ophiospharella herpotricha (Fr.) J. Walker & A.M Smith. Differential thermal analysis was used to monitor exotherm temperatures of healthy and O. herpotricha- and L. korrae-infected A-22 bermudagrass at 10-day intervals during 90 days of acclimation in cold chambers. Healthy bermudagrass crowns supercooled to an average of -6.7C and fungi-infected crowns supercooled to an average of -4.8 and -4.4C, respectively. Healthy crown exotherm temperatures were significantly lower than those of fungi-infected bermudagrass crowns on all nine sampling dates. This result indicates that fungi-infected plants are more susceptible to cold damage.