Search Results

You are looking at 71 - 80 of 110 items for :

  • " Vicia villosa " x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Steven Vanek, H.C. Wien, and Anu Rangarajan

Growing a main vegetable crop for harvest and a cover crop for residue return to soil in the same growing season is a promising strategy to sustain soil quality in vegetable rotations. Our research evaluated cover crop strips interseeded between pumpkins (Cucurbita pepo L.) as a way to implement such a strategy. Cover crop types were lana vetch (Vicia villosa ssp. dasycarpa Ten.) and a lana vetch–winter rye (Secale cereale L.) mix, interseeded before, at the same time, or after pumpkins. The competitive impact of different cover crop strips was assessed using pumpkin yield, cover strip biomass, crop nitrogen status, soil nitrate status, and soil water potential. Cover strips were also assessed for competitiveness with native weeds. Seeding date affected the competitiveness of cover strips with pumpkins, while cover type did not. Cover crops seeded before pumpkins or at the same time reduced pumpkin yield in proportion to biomass produced by the cover strips early in pumpkin growth. Cover strips seeded after pumpkins did not reduce yield. Tilling in a before-seeded cover strip at 30 days after pumpkin seeding gave higher pumpkin yield than before-seeded cover strips that were not tilled. At three of four sites, after-seeded cover strips had the lowest percent weed biomass in strips, and at two sites with moderate weed pressure vetch–rye strips were more effective than vetch alone in suppressing weeds. Cover strips seeded before or at the same time as pumpkins reduced pumpkin yield by taking up resources that were otherwise available to pumpkins. At a high-rainfall site, competition for soil nitrate by cover crop strips was the dominant factor in reducing pumpkin yield. At a low-rainfall site, the dominant factor was competition for water. Because of effective weed suppression and lack of pumpkin yield reduction, interseeding vetch–rye strips after pumpkins was a promising practice, as was tilling in preexistent cover strips at an interval <30 days after pumpkin seeding. Good previous weed management and rye–vetch mixes at high seeding rates are necessary to allow interseeded cover strips to outcompete weeds.

Free access

Nancy G. Creamer, Mark A. Bennett, and Benjamin R. Stinner

Planting polyculture mixtures of cover crops can optimize the benefits of their use. Thirteen polyculture mixtures of cover crops were evaluated in Columbus and Fremont, Ohio, to find a species mix that would establish quickly for erosion control, overwinter in Ohio, contribute sufficient N and have a C : N ratio between 20:1 and 30:1 to optimize N availability for subsequent crops, be killable by mechanical methods, and have high weed control potential. All of the mixtures in Columbus had achieved 30% ground cover 1 month after planting, but only four of the mixtures achieved this in Fremont due to poor conditions at planting. Above-ground biomass (AGB) accumulation in the mixtures ranged from 3631 to 13,642 kg·ha-1 in Columbus, and 449 to 12,478 kg·ha-1 in Fremont. Nitrogen in the AGB ranged from 74 to 269 kg·ha-1 in Columbus, and 10 to 170 kg·ha-1 in Fremont. Weed cover in the cover crop plots ranged from 1% to 91% eight weeks after cover crop kill in Columbus, and 12% to 90% seven weeks after cover crop kill in Fremont. Because one or more species in each screened mixture was determined not to be suitable, none of the mixtures was optimum. However, information gained about performance of individual species within the mixtures is also useful. `Nitro' alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ladino clover (Trifolium repense L.), subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), Austrian winter peas [Pisum sativum ssp. Arvense (L.) Poir], and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) did not overwinter dependably in Ohio. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) did not compete well with taller, more vigorous species, and were not persistent in the mixtures. Medium and mammoth red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), annual and perennial ryegrass, and white and yellow blossom sweetclover [Melilotus alba Desr., and Melilotus officianalis (L). Desr.], were not killable by mechanical methods. Individual species that established quickly, were competitive in the mixtures, overwintered dependably, and were killed by mechanical methods were rye (Secale cereale L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.)

Full access

Brian A. Kahn

was unaffected by intersowing with hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa ), barrel medic ( Medicago truncatula ), or black lentil ( Lens culinaris ) ( Guldan et al., 1996 ). Hairy vetch intercropped with pepper and managed as a winter annual increased the yield

Free access

Guangyao Wang and Mathieu Ngouajio

compared with sorghum sudangrass [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. × S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf.] and hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa Roth) cover crops (Ngouajio, unpublished data). The processes underlying this effect need to be further studied ( Barnes and

Full access

Victoria J. Ackroyd and Mathieu Ngouajio

effects of hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa ) and cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) on weed and vegetable crops MS Thesis Michigan State Univ East Lansing Hill, E.C. Ngouajio, M. Nair, M.G. 2006 Differential response of weeds and vegetable crops to aqueous extracts

Full access

George E. Boyhan and C. Randy Hill

fertilizers are split-applied ( Mihelic and Jakse, 2001 ). Along with research on organic fertility programs for onions, various green manures have been studied as a N source for onion production. In a study in Denmark it was found that hairy vetch ( Vicia

Full access

Chuck Ingels and John Roncoroni

each winter and reseeding each spring. The most prevalent weed seedlings were wild oat ( Avena fatua ), white clover ( Trifolium repens ), broadleaf filaree ( Erodium botrys ), and woollypod vetch ( Vicia villosa ). A few plants of field bindweed

Full access

Bernard H. Zandstra, Sylvia Morse, Rodney V. Tocco, and Jarrod J. Morrice

dichotomiflorum ), common lambsquarters ( Chenopodium album ), russian thistle ( Salsola iberica ), horseweed ( Conyza canadensis ), hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa ), and common groundsel ( Senecio vulgaris ) ( Zandstra et al., 2010 ). Asparagus weed control programs

Full access

Lavesta C. Hand, Wheeler G. Foshee III, Tyler A. Monday, Daniel E. Wells, and Dennis P. Delaney

physically inhibit it from reaching the soil to control emerging weeds ( Locke and Bryson, 1997 ). Teasdale et al. (2003) reported that hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa ) increased decomposition rates and initial soil solution of metolachlor. This led to reduced

Free access

Lambert B. McCarty, Raymond K. McCauley, Haibo Liu, F. Wesley Totten, and Joe E. Toler

and inhibitory effects at higher rates have been observed for centipedegrass [ Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack] debris on hairy vetch ( Vicia villosa Roth) ( White et al., 1989 ) and for crimson clover [ Triflorium incarnarum (L.)] on morning