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Brooke C. Colburn, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, Vidyasagar R. Sathuvalli, and David C. Smith

has a 2-year life cycle that begins with ascospore release from perithecia in the early fall to late spring during prolonged periods of branch wetness. The spores are disseminated by wind or water, and host tissue is susceptible to infection during

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Clinton J. Hunnicutt, Andrew W. MacRae, and Vance M. Whitaker

pressure within the planting bed comes from weeds in the planting holes, with the exception of nutsedge ( Cyperus sp.), which can puncture and grow through the plastic. Weeds growing in the planting holes typically begin to germinate within 3 to 5 weeks

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Eric T. Stafne, Jenny B. Ryals, and Barbara J. Smith

been postulated, such as low humidity, wind, rainfall, high light intensities, ultraviolet light, stinkbugs (Pentatomidae), redberry mite ( Acalitus essigi ), and various interactions of some or all these factors ( Bolda, 2009 ; Clark, 2008 , 2013

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Bernd Leinauer, Matteo Serena, and Devesh Singh

placed 30 cm apart from each other and pressure compensating emitters delivered water at a rate of 2 L·h −1 . Subsurface drip irrigation was chosen because of the site's wind exposure that historically resulted in poor irrigation coverage from sprinkler

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Ustun Sahin, Melek Ekinci, Fatih Mehmet Kiziloglu, Ertan Yildirim, Metin Turan, Recep Kotan, and Selda Ors

above sea level), Turkey. Experimental area has semiarid climate due to 404.9 mm average yearly precipitation according to 1971–2013 period data. In 2012 lettuce growing period (20 July–6 Sept.), average temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, daily

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Emma K. Dawson, George E. Boyhan, Tim Coolong, Nicholas T. Basinger, and Ryan McNeill

/acre, in some cases was as high as 8026 lb/acre ( Clark, 2008 ). Cover crop species, management decisions, and termination timing are key to the successful adoption of cover crops as a weed control strategy. Weed species, abundance, and pressure within

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Michael H. Hagemann, Malte G. Roemer, Julian Kofler, Martin Hegele, and Jens N. Wünsche

pressure-compensated hand sprayer (Gloria; Typ 133, Witten, Germany). Spray drift was prevented by a plastic sheet surrounding the panicle at the time of application. Table 3. Fruit size-dependent time of spray application and concentration of each plant

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Maria E. Cramer, Kathleen Demchak, Richard Marini, and Tracy Leskey

by light quantity. They tend to be most active in the field in full-sun conditions ( Fleming, 1972 ). Research involving wind tunnel bioassays and field observations also showed that the degree of Japanese beetle response to attractants was related

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Alex B. Daniels, David M. Barnard, Phillip L. Chapman, and William L. Bauerle

from the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equation; ( B ) mean air temperature (°C) and mean photosynthetically active radiation [ PAR (μmol·m −2 ·s −1 )]; ( C ) mean vapor pressure deficit (VPD; kPa), mean wind speed (m·s −1 ), and mean daily precipitation (mm

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Tamara Wynne and Dale Devitt

, Vernon Hills, IL). Leaf xylem water potential was measured with a pressure chamber (PMS Instruments, Albany, OR). Woody stem cuttings were immediately transferred to the pressure chamber where the pressure required to force xylem fluid to reemerge from