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Longyi Yuan, Deying Li, Yang Gao, and Wenjing Xiao

wilting. Turfgrass visual quality (VQ), species component in the canopy, and the turfgrass spectrum radiance were measured four times in May, July, and Oct. 2010 and in Oct. 2011 for the first experiment. Turfgrass VQ was evaluated on a 1 to 9 scale

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Matthew D. Clark and Eric Watkins

as turf and all were derived from European germplasm. ‘Barkoel’ was a top performer for turf quality compared with other native species in low-input turfgrass trials in Manitoba, Canada ( Mintenko et al., 2002 ). In another low-input study, unimproved

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Dana Sullivan, Jing Zhang, Alexander R. Kowalewski, Jason B. Peake, William F. Anderson, F. Clint Waltz Jr., and Brian M. Schwartz

For decades, visual assessments of turfgrass color, density, uniformity, quality, and cover have been used in variety trials ( Horst et al., 1984 ; Morris, 2000 ). The National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) developed protocols for visually

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Robert Andrew Kerr, Lambert B. McCarty, Matthew Cutulle, William Bridges, and Christopher Saski

addition of metribuzin with diclofop improved control efficacy of mature goosegrass plants. End-user options for goosegrass control efficacy while maintaining acceptable turfgrass quality has decreased over the past decade or so, due to reduced performance

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Florence Breuillin-Sessoms, Dominic P. Petrella, Daniel Sandor, Samuel J. Bauer, and Brian P. Horgan

( Karcher and Richardson, 2013 ; Schneider et al., 2012 ; Zhang et al., 2016 ) in a modified macro ( Soldat et al., 2012 ). Turf quality Visual turf quality (TQ) was rated using the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) scale ranging from 1

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B.G. Wherley, P. Skulkaew, A. Chandra, A.D. Genovesi, and M.C. Engelke

authors reported that under 50% shade, all ecotypes exhibited positive changes in plug diameter, although quality was not always deemed acceptable. Levels of 90% shade proved more challenging, because acceptable turfgrass quality was difficult to achieve

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Kenton W. Peterson, Jack D. Fry, and Dale J. Bremer

tillering ( Ervin et al., 2002 ; Okeyo et al., 2011a ; Qian et al., 1998 ). As a result, turfgrass grown under shade often declines in quality. Zoysiagrass is a sod-forming warm-season perennial turfgrass indigenous to the Pacific Rim ( Anderson, 2000

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Yang Gao and Deying Li

Fertilizers are commonly applied to turfgrass episodically, which usually causes a surge of absorption and growth intermittent with different degrees of deficiencies ( Stiegler et al., 2011 ). In turfgrass management, yield is not the primary

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John E. Erickson and Kevin E. Kenworthy

Water and nutrient inputs are frequently applied to residential and commercial turfgrass landscapes to maintain growth and quality. The application of water to residential landscapes represents one of the major uses of potable water in many areas

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Brian Schwartz, Jing Zhang, Jonathon Fox, and Jason Peake

better TQ when maintained at 4.7 mm than at 3.2 mm under 4 h daily sunlight ( Bunnell et al., 2005b ). Turfgrass quality of bermudagrass was greater at 25 mm than at 16 mm under 71% shade, but there was no difference in TQ under 0% or 41% shade ( Bunnell