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Michel Pirchio, Marco Fontanelli, Christian Frasconi, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Andrea Peruzzi, Lisa Caturegli, Monica Gaetani, Simone Magni, Marco Volterrani, and Nicola Grossi

heights, or on a hard-to-mow turfgrass species such as zoysiagrass. The aim of this trial was to develop and test a prototype-autonomous mower cutting at a low height on a manila grass turf, and to compare its performance in terms of turf quality and

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Robert Andrew Kerr, Lambert B. McCarty, Matthew Cutulle, William Bridges, and Christopher Saski

addition of metribuzin with diclofop improved control efficacy of mature goosegrass plants. End-user options for goosegrass control efficacy while maintaining acceptable turfgrass quality has decreased over the past decade or so, due to reduced performance

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Dana Sullivan, Jing Zhang, Alexander R. Kowalewski, Jason B. Peake, William F. Anderson, F. Clint Waltz Jr., and Brian M. Schwartz

For decades, visual assessments of turfgrass color, density, uniformity, quality, and cover have been used in variety trials ( Horst et al., 1984 ; Morris, 2000 ). The National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) developed protocols for visually

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Matthew D. Clark and Eric Watkins

as turf and all were derived from European germplasm. ‘Barkoel’ was a top performer for turf quality compared with other native species in low-input turfgrass trials in Manitoba, Canada ( Mintenko et al., 2002 ). In another low-input study, unimproved

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Florence Breuillin-Sessoms, Dominic P. Petrella, Daniel Sandor, Samuel J. Bauer, and Brian P. Horgan

( Karcher and Richardson, 2013 ; Schneider et al., 2012 ; Zhang et al., 2016 ) in a modified macro ( Soldat et al., 2012 ). Turf quality Visual turf quality (TQ) was rated using the National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) scale ranging from 1

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B.G. Wherley, P. Skulkaew, A. Chandra, A.D. Genovesi, and M.C. Engelke

authors reported that under 50% shade, all ecotypes exhibited positive changes in plug diameter, although quality was not always deemed acceptable. Levels of 90% shade proved more challenging, because acceptable turfgrass quality was difficult to achieve

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Kenton W. Peterson, Jack D. Fry, and Dale J. Bremer

tillering ( Ervin et al., 2002 ; Okeyo et al., 2011a ; Qian et al., 1998 ). As a result, turfgrass grown under shade often declines in quality. Zoysiagrass is a sod-forming warm-season perennial turfgrass indigenous to the Pacific Rim ( Anderson, 2000

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John E. Erickson and Kevin E. Kenworthy

Water and nutrient inputs are frequently applied to residential and commercial turfgrass landscapes to maintain growth and quality. The application of water to residential landscapes represents one of the major uses of potable water in many areas

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Yang Gao and Deying Li

Fertilizers are commonly applied to turfgrass episodically, which usually causes a surge of absorption and growth intermittent with different degrees of deficiencies ( Stiegler et al., 2011 ). In turfgrass management, yield is not the primary

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Brian Schwartz, Jing Zhang, Jonathon Fox, and Jason Peake

better TQ when maintained at 4.7 mm than at 3.2 mm under 4 h daily sunlight ( Bunnell et al., 2005b ). Turfgrass quality of bermudagrass was greater at 25 mm than at 16 mm under 71% shade, but there was no difference in TQ under 0% or 41% shade ( Bunnell