Light plays a crucial role in turfgrass growth and development and is considered most important in wavelengths of 400–700 nm or photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR ) ( Pons et al., 1993 ). Light wavelengths and spectral distribution vary with
Edward J. Nangle, David S. Gardner, James D. Metzger, Dominic P. Petrella, Tom K. Danneberger, Luis Rodriguez-Saona, and John L. Cisar
M.D. Richardson and K.W. Hignight
). Although these technologies have been successful with specific crops such as vegetables and legumes, their success with forage or turfgrass seeds has been modest ( Dowling, 1978 ; Hathcock et al., 1984a , 1984b ). Over the past 5 years, turfgrass seed
Nisa Leksungnoen, Paul G. Johnson, and Roger K. Kjelgren
., 2000 ). Hot, dry summers are characteristic of the IMW, where urban turfgrass requires irrigation to survive and thereby driving demand for water. However, the IMW has very limited water supplies; thus, water conservation in irrigated urban landscapes
Sangwook Han, Thomas W. Fermanian, John A Juvik, and Louis A. Spomer
Contribution from the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station. This study was partially supported by the Illinois Turfgrass Foundation.
Charles F. Mancino
Arizona's golf and sod industry generates $280 M year-1 in revenue and surpasses the vegetable, cotton and dairy industries. Despite the economic worth of turf, a need still exists to conserve the limited supply of potable water in this harsh Sonoran Desert environment. Mandatory water conservation programs have been developed for many sectors of the Arizona economy. To meet this challenge, the turfgrass industry and government bodies have begun to contribute to the development of research programs which reduce turfgrass water requirements and dependence upon potable water. Current research includes a) determining the minimum water requirements of higher quality turf under conditions of high temperatures and vapor pressure deficits; b) the turfgrass potential of grasses with lower water requirements than bermudagrass; c) the development of a statewide weather station network to predict daily turfgrass water use; and d) determine management strategies for turfgrass irrigated with wastewater effluent. The overall goal of these programs is to produce high quality and functional turf with 20 to 50 percent less water.
John J. Haydu, Alan. W. Hodges, and Charles R. Hall
If a consumer survey of the general public were conducted today on the U.S. turfgrass industry, most people would likely know little about it. One could go even further by stating that many researchers and specialists in Land Grant Universities
Cécile Bertin, Andy F. Senesac, Frank S. Rossi, Antonio DiTommaso, and Leslie A. Weston
and subarctic climates ( Turgeon, 1999 ). Extensively used for forage, turf, or conservation purposes, fescue species vary greatly in morphology, cytology, and growth habits. Fine-leaf fescue is a common turfgrass in northeastern U.S. lawns and turf
Baoxin Chang, Benjamin Wherley, Jacqueline Aitkenhead-Peterson, Nadezda Ojeda, Charles Fontanier, and Philip Dwyer
How to manage nutrients and irrigation have been major concerns for the turfgrass and ornamental industry in recent decades, especially within densely populated urban areas ( Beard and Green, 1994 ; Carey et al., 2012 ; Hochmuth et al., 2012 ). It
Gerald M. Henry, Michael G. Burton, and Fred H. Yelverton
exists on the spatial dynamics of perennial turfgrass weeds. McElroy et al. (2005) correlated the presence of green kyllinga ( Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb.) and false-green kyllinga ( Kyllinga gracillima L.) on golf course fairways with increasing
S. A. Mackintosh and R. J. Cooper
Environmental concerns associated with traditional methods of sludge disposal have spurred research exploring alternate avenues of disposal. A potentially significant alternative is the beneficial use of sludge as a turfgrass fertilizer. Studies were initiated during 1991 to compare a commercially available pelletized sludge to urea; 12-4-6; Ringer Lawn Restore; and Milorganite. Fertilizers were evaluated for their effect on turfgrass quality, color, and growth rate. Treatments were applied to a stand composed of 65% Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L. `Baron') and 35% Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. `Manhattan II') in South Deerfield, MA. Urea and 12-4-6 were applied at 49 kg N ha-1. Ringer Lawn Restore and Milorganite were applied at 98 kg N ha-1. Pelletized sludge was applied at 98, 196, 294, and 392 kg N ha-1 with all rates providing acceptable to good turfgrass color throughout the season. Rates of 294 or 392 kg seldom provided quality better than the 196 kg rate. While urea initially produced quality superior to pelletized sludge, all rates of sludge resulted in quality equal to or better than urea beginning one month after application and lasting approximately 11 weeks. Turf receiving similar rates of either pelletized sludge or Milorganite performed similarly. No sludge application rate produced burning or foliar discoloration. Clipping production was directly related to sludge application rate. Pelletized sludge applied at 98 kg N ha-1 resulted in growth comparable to similar applications of Ringer Lawn Restore and Milorganite. In summary, using pelletized sewage sludge as a turfgrass fertilizer promotes healthy turfgrass while creating an alternate avenue of sludge disposal.