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María Engracia Guerra, Ana Wünsch, Margarita López-Corrales, and Javier Rodrigo

Flower emasculation is widely used in breeding programs for hybridization of deciduous fruit trees ( Layne, 1983 ). This technique is also used in cytological and genetic studies ( Okie and Hancock, 2008 ) and in different field experiments in which

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Richard L. Bell

Host resistance to pear psyllids [ Cacopsylla pyri (L.), C. pyricola (Förster), and C. pyrisuga (Förster)] is a major objective of several pear breeding programs in North America and Europe ( Bellini and Nin, 2002 ; Brewer and Palmer, 2011

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Luis Rallo

, 2012 ). Resistance to these forms of damage continues to be an objective in the breeding of table olives. Although reductions in tree size has been proposed to increase harvest efficiency in trunk shaker systems, which implies a tendency to shorten

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Hongmei Ma, Richard Olsen, Margaret Pooler, and Matthew Kramer

characteristics. Integral to this breeding program is our flowering cherry germplasm collection, consisting of over 1500 trees representing at least 30 diverse taxa. The taxonomy and nomenclature of the ornamental flowering cherries is complicated and confusing

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Gehendra Bhattarai, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith

breeding process. Stromata are present on the sunken, perennial cankers. When branches become wet in winter and spring, the perithecia swell and eject ascospores because of an increase in pressure ( Pinkerton et al., 1998 ). The released ascospores are

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David E. Zaurov, Thomas J. Molnar, Sasha W. Eisenman, Timothy M. Ford, Ravza F. Mavlyanova, John M. Capik, C. Reed Funk, and Joseph C. Goffreda

characteristics important to the Rutgers breeding program. Because of the large number of seedlings, the initial spacing was restricted to less than 1 m between each plant in the row. Each year, poor-performing trees were systematically culled with many others

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Rayane Barcelos Bisi, Ute Albrecht, and Kim D. Bowman

The rootstock is an important component of a healthy and productive citrus tree, influencing the fruit yield, fruit quality, tree size, and tolerance of diseases ( Bowman and Joubert, 2020 ; Castle et al., 2011 ; McCollum and Bowman, 2017

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Deborah Dean, Phillip A. Wadl, Denita Hadziabdic, William E. Klingeman, Bonnie H. Ownley, Timothy A. Rinehart, Adam J. Dattilo, Brian Scheffler, and Robert N. Trigiano

program Structure indicated two populations and that the population is fragmented. However, the F IS values indicate a high inbreeding coefficient and suggest the trees are in fact breeding with closely related individuals. Therefore, we conclude that

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Sharon Inch, Ed Stover, Randall Driggers, and Richard F. Lee

breeding: Tree and tropical fruits. John Wiley, New York, NY Tignor, M.E. Davies, F.S. Sherman, W.B. 1998 Freezing tolerance and growth characteristics of USDA intergeneric citrus hybrids US119 and selection 17-11 HortScience 33 744 748 UC IPM Online 2014

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Janna Beckerman, James Chatfield, and Erik Draper

presence of HcrVf2 in the susceptible M. floribunda trees at Secrest and conclusively demonstrate the existence of Race 7 and the breakdown of Vf/Vfh resistance in North America. With further integration of the plant pathology and plant breeding