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Puffy Soundy, Winnie Mpati, and Elsadu Toit

Oral Session 19—Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants Moderator: Karen L. Panter 19 July 2005, 4:00–6:00 p.m. Room 101

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Kent Cushman, Muhammad Maqbool, Ebru Bedir, Hemant Lata, Ikhlas Khan, and Rita Moraes

Oral Session 19—Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants Moderator: Karen L. Panter 19 July 2005, 4:00–6:00 p.m. Room 101

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J. Pablo Morales-Payan and William M. Stall

Poster Session 39—Herbs, Spices, and Medicinals 2 20 July 2005, 1:15–2:00 p.m. Poster Hall–Ballroom E/F

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Santosh Shiwakoti, Tess Astatkie, Ivan Salamon, Daniela Grul'ová, Silvia Mudrencekova, and Vicki Schlegel

Cumin ( C. cyminum L.) is one of the important aromatic plants belonging to Apiaceae family. It has an ancient history of use as medicinal and spice plant since the Roman times ( Stojanov, 1972 ). Cumin seed was used for the treatment of toothache

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Usha R. Palaniswamy

Consumption of Asian herbs, spices, and vegetables in the U.S. has increased considerably within the past decade. This paper reviews some Asian culinary herbs and vegetables that are now increasingly used by American mainstream consumers, as well as ethnic Asians. It briefly summarizes traditional medicinal properties and the accumulating scientific evidence for functional properties of these plant species.

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Deyuan Wang and Paul W. Bosland

Pepper (Capsicum spp.) is one of the most cultivated vegetable and spice crops in the world. Capsicum genetics have been extensively studied, but the most recent Capsicum gene list was published more than a decade ago. Since then, new genes have been described. This updated gene list provides detailed descriptions of genes, including the genes' characteristics, the genetic background of the mutants/lines, action mechanisms of genes, gene interactions, molecular markers, and chromosome localization when available. This new list includes 292 genes for morphological traits; physiological traits; sterility; and resistance to diseases, nematodes, and herbicides, which includes the 92 genes that have not been previously described.

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R. T. Wukasch and G. Hofstra

Abstract

A suspected interaction between ozone injury and Botrytis spp. infection on onions (Allium cepa L.) was investigated in the field by reducing one or both causal agents by chemical antioxidants and/or fungicides. ‘Autumn Spice’ and ‘Rocket’ onions received 4 sprays of the fungicide anilazine and/or one of the following chemicals with antioxidant properties: fenarimol, ancymidol, chlormequat, piperonyl butoxide, metiram, chlorthalonil, or DuPont DPX-4891. Ozone levels exceeded 4 hourly averages of 8 pphm on at least 7 occasions during July, ozone injury was routinely observed in the field, and Botrytis was frequently isolated from lesions on onion leaves. Single and combination treatments of all fungicides and antioxidants generally reduced leaf necrosis and the Botrytis incidence. Fungicide-antioxidant combination treatments were superior to either fungicide or antioxidants alone in reducing Botrytis infection. Yields of ‘Autumn Spice’ were increased by most treatments while ‘Rocket’ onion yields were generally decreased. DPX-4891, the only antioxidant which was nonfungitoxic to Botrytis in vitro, was frequently superior to fungicides in preventing Botrytis lesions and was also the most effective in reducing ozone injury. These results support the hypothesis that onions injured by ozone are more susceptible to Botrytis infection.

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James W. Rushing

The production, handling, processing and marketing of over-the-counter medicinal products manufactured from plants is virtually unregulated. This can include dietary supplements, functional foods and nutraceuticals, any of which may contain botanical constituents. Of particular concern is the possible presence of human pathogens in products offered at retail. A review of literature is presented. Options for sterilizing herbal medicinal products, including fumigation, irradiation and heat treatments, are presented. Experiences of the spice industry are discussed as they relate to the development of similar protocols for herbal medicines. Methods used to ensure microbiological safety must be evaluated for their effect on the medicinally active constituents in the plant material. Very little data of this nature are available. Avenues for future research are proposed.

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P.T. Karlovich and W.C. Fonteno

Abstract

No differences in final height, top fresh weight, top dry weight, or flower number were observed in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. ‘Spice’ grown in 16.5-cm azalea pots when allowed to dry to soil moisture tensions of 5, 10, 20, or 30 kPa between waterings. Differences did occur in these parameters among the 3 tested media. Differences also occurred across all 3 media based on the volume of water remaining in the pot prior to watering. Plants growing in media containing more than 500 ml water just prior to irrigation had increased growth compared to plants in media containing less than 500 ml water. Cubic regression models were used to describe the percentage of moisture in the pot at soil moisture tensions between 0 and 30 kPa. The model may be used to predict container capacity and air space for most container sizes.

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Sandra M. Reed

Breeding efforts in Clethra alnifolia L., an ornamental shrub native to the Eastern U.S., are hindered by a lack of information on the reproductive behavior of this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate self-compatibility, time of stigma receptivity, and the relationship between time of pollen shed and stigma receptivity in C. alnifolia. Stigma receptivity and changes in floral morphology were monitored over a 7-day period beginning at flower opening. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in styles were examined following self- and cross-pollinations using fluorescence microscopy. Seed set and germination were compared following self- and cross-pollinations. Anthers began to dehisce in `Hummingbird' and `Ruby Spice' the day after flowers opened, but stigmas did not become fully receptive to pollen until 2 days later. An increase in the length of pistils was observed following flower opening. Maximum elongation of pistils occurred at approximately the same time stigmas became receptive and could be utilized as an indicator of receptivity. While self-pollen tubes appeared to grow slightly slower than cross-pollen tubes, there was no indication of a self-incompatibility system acting at the stigmatic or stylar level in C. alnifolia. Self-pollinations of `Hummingbird' and `Ruby Spice' produced fewer seeds than did cross-pollinations of these cultivars. Germination of all seed obtained from this study was too poor to allow a comparison of germination rates of the self- and cross-pollinated seed. However, because a few self-progeny were obtained, emasculation is recommended when making controlled pollinations. The presence of a late acting self-incompatibility system or early-acting inbreeding depression was proposed as being responsible for the lower seed set following self-pollination.