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W.L. Chen and D.M. Yeh

carrying and spreading disease. Tissue culture is preferable for rapid multiplication of healthy plants. However, endogenous microbial contamination is known to be one of the most serious problems in tissue culture of ornamental aroids, including

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Fátima Medina-Lara, Ramón Souza-Perera, Manuel Martínez-Estévez, Manuel O. Ramírez-Sucre, Ingrid M. Rodríguez-Buenfil, and Ileana Echevarría Machado

Leptosols are the most common soils in the world (12%). In México the percentage is 24%, and in the State of Yucatán it is 80% ( INEGI, 1998 ). Yucatán has an extension of 39,524 km 2 , within which the physiography has no elevated areas, presenting

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Feras Almasri, Husein A. Ajwa, Sanjai J. Parikh, and Kassim Al-Khatib

During the past 55 years, methyl bromide (MeBr) has been the most effective soil fumigant for controlling soil pests in California high-value crops ( Johnson et al., 2012 ). MeBr is a highly effective biocide that has a consistent and broad pest

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Michael V. Mickelbart, Michael J. Gosney, James Camberato, and Kelly M. Stanton

) was used to remove nine cores 15 cm deep from between plants in each plot. The top 1 cm was removed from each core to avoid contamination from vegetative material and the cores were combined, air-dried, and ground to pass a 2-mm sieve. Soil pH was

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N. Mays, K.R. Brye, Curt R. Rom, M. Savin, and M.E. Garcia

materials to maintain or improve soil organic matter content in a manner that does not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water by plant nutrients, pathogenic organisms, heavy metals, or residues of prohibited substances” ( United States

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Adam D. Karl, Ian A. Merwin, Michael G. Brown, Rebecca A. Hervieux, and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel

treatments, in addition to removing more carbon from these vineyard soils, also poses as a potential source of contamination to the local watershed, as does leaching of imidacloprid from GLY soils. However, potential absorption of imidacloprid by ground

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Jennifer Reeve and Dan Drost

generally planted outdoors in mid- to late May with harvest beginning in late July or early August. High tunnels are used to advance the planting dates by 4–6 weeks and the harvest dates by a month or more. Maintaining soil quality and fertility in a

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Leslie D. Hintz, Renee R. Boyer, Monica A. Ponder, Robert C. Williams, and Steven L. Rideout

not specifically affect the presence or absence of contamination during sampling. The continuous inoculation of S . Newport in the root zone likely replenished the levels or encouraged persistence of the bacterium in soil surrounding the roots

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Xinhua Yin, Clark F. Seavert, Janet Turner, Roberto Núñez-Elisea, and Helen Cahn

, herbicide application in the row area of orchards has reduced soil microbial activities ( Elmore et al., 1997 ; Glover et al., 1999 ) and elevated herbicide contamination of underground and surface water ( Merwin et al., 1996 ). Therefore, there is a need

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Xinhua Yin, Lynn E. Long, Xiao-Lan Huang, Ngowari Jaja, Jinhe Bai, Clark F. Seavert, and Jac le Roux

in-row herbicide application in orchards is effective for weed control and reducing water use, it may adversely affect soil ecosystems and the environment, such as reducing soil microbial activities and elevating water contamination ( Merwin et al