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Ryo Matsuda, Chieri Kubota, M. Lucrecia Alvarez, and Guy A. Cardineau

from 14 Sept. 2008. The rates of stem elongation and leaf development of each plant were calculated as the slopes of the first-order regression equation of time courses of stem length and leaf number, respectively. On 15 Oct. 2008, shoot (leaves and

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Daniel I. Leskovar

Irrigation methods, rates, timing, and frequency may influence the physical and chemical properties of the growing media thereby affecting root initiation, elongation, branching, development and dry matter partitioning between roots and shoots.

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Sharon A. Bates, John E. Preece, and John H. Yopp

To increase adventitious shoot formation, we investigated the effects of the number of weeks on medium with high levels of plant growth regulators and seedcoat removal. Dissected white ash seeds were placed on a solidified MS medium containing 10 μM TDZ and 1 μM 2,4-D (shoot initiation medium). After 2, 3, or 4 weeks in vitro, explants were transferred to shoot elongation medium (3 μM TDZ, 1 μM BA, and 1 μM IBA). After 12 weeks, the greatest number (1.8) and longest shoots (18.7 mm) were in cultures incubated on the shoot formation medium for 3 weeks. In a separate experiment, dissected seeds were placed on shoot formation medium. Seedcoats were removed after 10 days in vitro. Explants were transferred to shoot elongation medium after 4 weeks in vitro. There were more shoots (2.5) on 12-week-old explants without seedcoats than on explants with seedcoats (0.9). This result may be related to inhibitors in the testa.

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S.J. McArtney and D.C. Ferree

Dormant, 2-year-old, own-rooted `Chambourcin' grapevines (Vitis sp.) were subjected to two levels of root pruning (none, two-thirds roots removed) and were subsequently trained with either one or two canes. Vines were destructively harvested at bloom and after harvest when dormant to determine the effect of stored reserves in the root and competition between shoots for these reserves on vine growth and berry development. Removing 78% of the root system reduced shoot elongation and leaf area more effectively than did increasing the number of shoots per vine from one to two. Root pruning reduced the elongation rate of shoots for 45 days after budbreak, whereas increasing the shoot number reduced the shoot elongation rate for only 20 days after budbreak. A positive linear relationship was observed between leaf area per shoot at bloom and the number of berries per single cluster. These results demonstrate the importance of 1) the roots as a source of reserves for the initial development of vegetative tissues in spring, and 2) the rapid development of leaf area on an individual shoot for high set of grape berries on that shoot.

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David J. Ballantyne

The influence of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and gibberellic acid (GA3) sprays on shoot elongation was determined for `Coral Bells' (Kurume or R. obstusum hybrid), `Fashion' (Glen Dale or R. indicum × Kurume hybrid), `Hexe' (R. obtusum × R. simsii hybrid), `Hinocrimson' (Kurume or R. obtusum hybrid), `Hinodegiri' (Kurume or R. obtusum hybrid), and `Red Wing' (Brooks hybrid) azalea. GA3 at 1 mm was more effective in stimulating shoot elongation of `Coral Bells', `Fashion', `Hinodegiri', and `Red Wing' than of `Hexe' or `Hinocrimson'. GA3 sprays were more effective in stimulating elongation when applied to plants growing at irradiance levels of 350 μmol·s-1·m-2 than to plants growing at either 200 or 100 μmol·s-1·-2. Gross photosynthesis of leaf segments was higher for a slow-growing cultivar (Hinocrimson) than for a faster-growing cultivar (Fashion). `Hinocrimson' produced stouter shoots (greater dry weight/cm) than did `Fashion'.

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Roberto Santos, Bradley H. Taylor, and Roger Kjelgren

The effect of root pruning on shoot length and water relations of `Bellaire' peach was investigated as a means of controlling vegetative growth. On 27 April, 25 May, and 23 June, 1990, five-year-old trees were root pruned to a 0.35 m depth at either 0.4 or 0.8 m from the tree trunks along both sides of the row. Shoot growth was measured biweekly through the growing season, and the diurnal pattern of stomatal conductance and water potential was followed in late June, July, and August. Stomatal conductance of the root-pruned treatments was less than the control, while there were no differences in water potential among treatments. Reduced shoot elongation was evident within a month of root pruning at 0.4 m for all timing treatments, but at 0.8 m it varied with the date of pruning. The first root pruning at 0.4 m reduced cumulative shoot elongation 39% compared to the un-pruned control trees, while the remaining treatments reduced it 14%. While root pruning limited cumulative shoot elongation in all treatments, the earliest 0.4 m treatment was most effective, possibly due to pruning of a larger percent of the root system prior to rapid shoot elongation. Stomatal closure in root-pruned trees appeared to moderate diurnal water deficits at levels similar to the control.

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D.M. Lauderdale, C.H. Gilliam, D.J. Eakes, and G.J. Keever

Two tree species, Acer rubrum `October Glory' (October Glory red maple) and Quercus phellos (willow oak) were planted in Columbus, GA and Mobile, AL. Variables evaluated were location (park vs residential) and tree size (1.5 vs 3.0 inch caliper). Greater shoot elongation occurred with 1.5 inch red maples and willow oaks than with 3.0 inch caliper trees. First year growth differences were not related to photosynthesis, night respiration, leaf water potential, or foliar nitrogen levels. Little height or caliper change occurred with either species. Red maple shoot elongation was greater in Mobile than into Columbus. Growth was not affected by location within either city.

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Robert D. Berghage and Royal D. Heins

Elongation characteristics of each internode on a lateral shoot of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Klotz) `Annette Hegg Dark Red' were determined from pinching through anthesis for plants grown with 36 day/night temperature (DT/NT) combinations between 16 and 30C. The Richards function was used to describe the elongation of each internode. The first internode developing on a lateral shoot was longer and matured faster than subsequent internodes. The length of the first internode was a function of the difference between day and night temperatures (DIF = DT - NT). Subsequent internodes elongated uniformly in the absence of flower initiation. In the absence of flower initiation, the length of an internode, after the first, was a function of DIF. Internodes were shorter as proximity to the inflorescence increased. Internode length after the start of short days was a function of DIF and the visible bud index where visible bud index = [(days from pinching to the day an internode began to elongate - days from pinching to the day of the start of flower initiation)/the number of days from pinching to visible bud]. A poinsettia lateral shoot elongation model was developed based on the derived functions for internode elongation. The model predicted lateral shoot length within one standard deviation of the mean for plants grown in a separate validation study with 16 combinations of DT/NT. The model allows the prediction of lateral shoot length on any day from pinching through anthesis based on temperature, the number of nodes on the lateral shoot, the time each internode on the lateral shoot began elongating, and the visible bud index at the start of elongation of each node.

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N.S. Al-Khalifah and P.G. Alderson

Shoot cultures of Ficus benjamina cv. Cleo showed a variable response to light intensity in the range of 8 to 50 μmolm–2–s–1. The highest leaf area occurred at 15 μmolm–2–s–1 and shoot length and chlorophyll contents increased with the decrease of light intensity. Incubating explants for 8 weeks at 25 and 35C showed that shoot length increased at 35C; however, shoot multiplication, leaf number, root number, and callus weight were higher at 25C. Shoot-tip explants were superior to axillary buds when cultured or subcultured for shoot elongation, whereas axillary buds were better for shoot multiplication. Shoot tips with two or three small leaves appeared to be the best explants for fast growth and healthy cultures of F. benjamina.

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I-lun Lu, David W. Burger, and Ellen G. Sutter

Long term exposure to high benzyladenine (BA) concentrations inhibited shoot elongation and root growth of Cymbidium cv. Yuh Hwa rhizome explants. Through transfer experiments, it was determined that the commitment to shoot induction occurred between 10 and 14 days of exposure to at least 2.5 μM BA. BA when supplied at 20 μM during the fit 14 days of culture was found to be sufficient to induce shoot formation. Both shoot elongation and root formation were greatly improved by decreasing the BA concentration. By using radiolabelled BA, adenine was found to be a major metabolite in the rhizome tissue. Free IAA levels, quantitated by GC-MS, did not correlate well with the organogenesis of rhizomes, nor did the levels of free IAA correlate well with the activities of peroxidase and IAA oxidase, indicating a complex relationship between hormone concentration and differentiation.