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Laura A. Warner, Alexa J. Lamm, Peyton Beattie, Sarah A. White, and Paul R. Fisher

avoid foliar diseases subirrigation: ebb-and-flood irrigation delivery from below the container, usually combined with a collection tank to hold water and reduce leaching and foliar diseases soil moisture sensors: timing of irrigation based on automated

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Kevin M. Folta and Sofia D. Carvalho

and development ( Carvalho and Folta, 2014a ). The work described the effects of growing a range of crop plants under narrow-bandwidth radiation, such as that provided by LED light. To complement that work, this review addresses the range of sensors

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Alberto Pardossi and Luca Incrocci

original experiments with the major greenhouse crops in Almeria. Soil moisture sensors Soil moisture sensors could be used to regulate the frequency of irrigation and, possibly, the water dose by continuously monitoring θ or ψ m of the growing media

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Shuyang Zhen, Stephanie E. Burnett, Michael E. Day, and Marc W. van Iersel

. Moderate water stress reduces plant growth and elongation in many species and may be used as a substitute for chemical growth retardants in commercial greenhouses. For instance, Burnett and van Iersel (2008) used a capacitance sensor-automated irrigation

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Raymond A. Cloyd, Amy Dickinson, Richard A. Larson, and Karen A. Marley

arena. A photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR ) sensor providing output to a LI-COR brand LI-1000 DataLogger (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE) was centrally positioned on top of the lid of each sample compartment, which recorded readings in μmol·m −2 ·s −1

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Luke Miller, George Vellidis, Osama Mohawesh, and Timothy Coolong

“feels” dry ( Maynard and Hochmuth, 2007 ). Other methods of soil moisture–based irrigation may use tensiometers, granular matrix, or resistance-based sensors to determine thresholds for irrigation management ( Cardenas-Lailhacar et al., 2010 ; Munoz

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Luke Miller, George Vellidis, and Timothy Coolong

; however, accuracy is limited. Soil moisture status can also be used to schedule irrigation. Soil moisture sensor–based irrigation may use tensiometers, granular matrix, or resistance-based sensors to determine irrigation thresholds ( Cardenas-Lailhacar et

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D. Michael Glenn

Thermography, or IR imaging, measures the radiation bands from 9,000 to 14,000 nm using a sensor array in which each sensor is equitable with the pixel of a digital image. Each pixel in the digital image contains the emitted IR energy of the object

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Maria C. Morera, Paul F. Monaghan, Michael D. Dukes, Ondine Wells, and Stacia L. Davis

, evapotranspiration-based smart controllers adjust irrigation run times or watering days according to climate throughout the year ( Dukes, 2009 ; Dukes et al., 2009 ). Similarly, soil moisture sensor-based smart controllers use water content data from the sensor to

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Amanda Bayer

more plants on a truck. It is beneficial to both producers and consumers if more plants can fit onto a truck because it helps distribute shipping costs onto more plants. Sensor-controlled irrigation studies have shown the relationship between plant