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Shiow Y. Wang, Gene J. Galletta, and John L. Maas

Fruit quality of 24 selected strawberry cultivars and selections were evaluated. There were great variations in the contents of soluble solids, titratable acidity, carbohydrates, organic acids, and ascorbic acid among different cultivars, reflecting primary genetic differences. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were found to be the three major sugars, comprising >65% of the total soluble solids in strawberry. Fruit contained lower sucrose compared to fructose and glucose, whereas leaves contained comparable amounts of fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Citric acid was the major organic acid in strawberries. Strawberries were also rich in ascorbic acid. Leaves were much higher in ascorbic acid than fruit. There appeared to be no correlation between fruit and leaves on carbohydrate, organic acid, and ascorbic acid contents.

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Peng Shi

Seedling selections in pomegranates began in 1986. `Giant Green Sweet' (GGS) was used as the female parent. GGS was characterized by fruit size from 340 to 500 g, a green color with slight blush, thin fruit coat, hexalobate calyx, and semi-open ovary with 8 to 12 loculi. The seeds are red, abundant, juicy, and sweet. The seeds contain 15% to 16% soluble solids. The male, pollinating cultivars in the same garden were `Giant Red Sweet', `Giant Horse Teeth', `White Sweet', `Red Sour', `Bing Tang Zi', and `Qing Gang Liu'. Seeds were harvested from fruit that were open-pollinated and weighed 500 g. Seeds were germinated and planted at the end of March. One-year-old seedlings grew to 30 to 50 cm. Two-year-old seedlings grew to 1 to 1.5 m tall with many branches. Seedlings passed the juvenile period after 3 years of growth. Some seedlings blossomed, and a few blossoms developed into fruit. Seedlings were adult by the fourth year, and all of them blossomed and developed fruit. This is a shorter interval to maturation than the parent cultivars. Fruits were located from the lower middle of the tree crown to the top. Adult seedlings produced fruit of ≈400 g with a few seedlings producing fruits of 500 to 600 g. There were 400 to 500 seeds per fruit averaging 40 g per 100 seeds. Seeds from the offspring were bright red and larger than those of the female parent. Fruit flavor was similar to the female parent. Offspring were more cold hardy than the parent cultivars. There were no signs of cold injury in hybrid seedlings to –19°C. This study indicates that seedling selection in pomegranates has a high potential to create higher yield and quality pomegranates. Continuing experiments will reselect the best offspring to develop higher quality cultivars.

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Iwan F. Labuschagné, J.H. Louw, Karin Schmidt, and Annalene Sadie

Genetic variation in chilling requirement was investigated over three growth periods using clonal progenies of six apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] families derived from crosses of high and low chill requiring cultivars. Two quantitative measurements related to chilling requirement, viz., the time of initial budbreak (vegetative and reproductive) and the number of breaking buds over a specified time interval, were used as evaluation criteria. Genetic and environmental variances of the traits are presented as intra-class correlation coefficients for clones within and between families. For budbreak time, reproductive and vegetative, broad-sense heritability averaged around 75% and 69% respectively, indicating a high degree of genetic determination in this material. For budbreak number, moderate to low genetic determination was found with broad-sense heritabilities around 30%. Estimates of genetic components of variance between families were generally very low in comparison to the variance within families and predict potentially favorable responses to truncation selection on the traits within these progeny groups. Analysis of the data showed that distribution of budbreak time is typical of quantitative traits with means distributed closely around midparent values. Skewed distributions towards low budbreak number were obtained in varying degrees in all families.

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Sandra M. Bijelić, Branislava R. Gološin, Jelena I. Ninić Todorović, Slobodan B. Cerović, and Boris M. Popović

preservation of plant resources and to selection of wild fruit genotypes from natural populations ( Ercisli et al., 2007 ; Tosun et al., 2009 ). The cornelian cherry is a semi-domesticated plant that can be used as both food and medicine. In folk tradition, it

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Vidyasagar R. Sathuvalli, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith

’, conferred by a dominant allele at a single locus ( Mehlenbacher et al., 1991 ), has been extensively used in the hazelnut breeding program at Oregon State University (OSU). Most resistant selections from the breeding program carry ‘Gasaway’ resistance. In

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Ricardo Goenaga, Heber Irizarry, and Brian Irish

obtained from a few unique segregating ‘F 1 ’ trees. Additionally, the yield data needed from long-term experiments to validate this assumption are not available. Lockwood et al. (2007) observed that the optimal strategy for clone selection is by family

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Feng-yang Yu, Yue-e Xiao, Lin Cheng, Shu-cheng Feng, and Lei-lei Zhang

( Goldblatt and Manning, 2008 ). There are ≈70,000 known Iris cultivars, and more than 1000 new cultivars are produced by selection and hybridization every year ( Hu and Xiao, 2012 ). Few of those cultivars bloom in early spring (late March to mid-April in

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Jaime Prohens, Adrián Rodríguez-Burruezo, María Dolores Raigón, and Fernando Nuez

compounds present in minor quantities in eggplant are numerous, and apart from their potent antioxidant activity, they also include free radical scavenging and antitumoral activities ( Sawa et al., 1998 ; Triantis et al., 2005 ). The selection of eggplant

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Heriberto Aguilar Pérez, Jesús Arreola Ávila, Emigdio Morales Olais, Eutimio Cuéllar Villarreal, Ángel Lagarda Murrieta, Héctor Tarango Rivero, Jesús Humberto Núñez Moreno, and Leonardo Lombardini

evaluated as ‘Selection 19-20’ after being grafted on five seedling—trees planted at 10 × 10 m distance in the 1980s at INIFAP’s Experiment Station of Zaragoza Coahuila (lat. 28°29′30″ N; long. 100°55′10″ W). ‘Norteña’ has been registered in the Servicio

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Sorkel A. Kadir and Edward L. Proebsting

In Dec. 1990, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) selections varied in floral bud kill from 9% to 92% following exposure to severe cold. In the following winter, the hardiness of two hardy and two tender selections was analyzed by differential thermal analysis (DTA) to screen selections for hardiness. In a mild winter, when buds remained at their minimum hardiness level, the hardy selections consistently were > 2C hardier than the tender selections. About one-half of that hardiness difference was associated with differences in tissue water content, the other half with unknown factors. Buds of the tender selections began to develop earlier and bloomed earlier than the hardy selections. DTA analysis of floral bud populations separated selections that clearly differed in floral bud hardiness.