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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Christina Perez, H. Brent Pemberton, and James Altland

slight or minimal foliar salt damage with visual scores ≈4. Visual quality is an important parameter for evaluating the salt tolerance of flowering ornamental plants ( Niu and Cabrera, 2010 ). High salinity causes plant injuries such as leaf necrosis

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Hong Jiang, Zhiyuan Li, Xiumei Jiang, and Yong Qin

. tinctoria were most sensitive to high-salt stress and were protected, to a certain degree, against salt stress injury by accumulating proline, soluble sugar, and soluble protein. Conclusion With increasing NaCl concentration, P n , g S , T r , and

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Danny Hillin, Pierre Helwi, and Justin J. Scheiner

semi-arid regions Springer Dordrecht, Netherlands 10.1007/978-94-007-6636-5_2 Baneh, H.D. Hassani, A. Shaieste, F.G. 2014 Effects of salinity on leaf mineral composition and salt injury symptoms of some Iranian wild grapevine ( Vitis

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, and Mengmeng Gu

( Marosz, 2004 ; Niu and Rodriguez, 2006a , 2006b ) or in clay soil ( Miyamoto et al., 2005 ). Salt injury on a number of landscape plants irrigated with low-quality water was most noticeable during the hottest and driest period of summer ( Fox et al

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Lambert B. McCarty and Daniel L. Colvin

Buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] is a turfgrass species traditionally adapted to low-rainfall areas that may incur unacceptable weed encroachment when grown in higher rainfall areas such as Florida. An experiment was performed to evaluate the tolerance of two new buffalograss cultivars, `Oasis' and `Prairie', to postemergence herbicides commonly used for grass, broadleaf, and sedge weed control. Twenty to 40 days were required for each cultivar to recover from treatment with asulam, MSMA, and sethoxydim (2.24, 2.24, and 0.56 kg-ha-l, respectively). Other herbicides used for postemergence grass weed control (metsulfuron, quinclorac, and diclofop at 0.017, 0.56, and 1.12 kg·ha-1, respectively) did not cause unacceptable buffalograss injury. Herbicides used for postemergence broadleaf weed control, triclopyr, 2,4-D, sulfometuron, dicamba (0.56, 1.12, 0.017, and 0.56 kg·ha-1, respectively), and a three-way combination of 2,4-D + dicamba + mecoprop (1.2 + 0.54 + 0.13 kg·ha-1), caused 20 to 30 days of unacceptable or marginally acceptable turfgrass quality, while 20 days were required for `Prairie' buffalograss to recover from atrazine treatments. `Oasis' buffalograss did not fully recover from 2,4-D or 2,4-D + dicamba + mecoprop through 40 days after treatment. Herbicides used for postemergence sedge control, bentazon and imazaquin, caused slightly reduced, but acceptable, levels of turf quality in both cultivars throughout the experiment. Chemical names used: 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (atrazine); methyl[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl]carhamate (asulam); 3-(1-methylethyl)-(1H)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (bentazon); 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba); (±)-2-[4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy]propanoic acid (diclofop); 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid (imazaquin); (±)-2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (mecoprop); 2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]benzoic acid (metsulfuron); monosodium salt of methylarsonic acid (MSMA); 2-[1-(ethoxyimino)butyl]-5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one(sethoxydim); 2-[[[[(4,6-dimethylethyl-2-pyrimidinyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]benzoic acid (sulfometuron); [(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid (triclopyr); (2,4-dichlorophenoxyl)acetic acid (2,4-D); 3,7-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).

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Yali He, Xiaozhong Liu, and Bingru Huang

The acclimation of plants to moderately high temperature plays an important role in inducing plant tolerance to subsequent lethal high temperatures. This study was performed to investigate the effects of heat acclimation and sudden heat stress on protein synthesis and degradation in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.). Plants of the cultivar Penncross were subjected to two temperature regimes in growth chambers: 1) heat acclimation—plants were exposed to a gradual increase in temperatures from 20 to 25, 30, and 35 °C for 7 days at each temperature level before being exposed to 40 °C for 28 days; and 2) sudden heat stress (nonacclimation)—plants were directly exposed to 40 °C for 28 days from 20 °C without acclimation through the gradual increase in temperatures. Heat acclimation increased plant tolerance to subsequent heat stress, as demonstrated by lower electrolyte leakage (relative EL) in leaves of heat-acclimated plants compared to nonacclimated plants at 40 °C. Heat acclimation induced expression of some heat shock proteins (HSPs), 57 and 54 kDa, detected in a salt-soluble form (cystoplasmic proteins), which were not present in unacclimated plants under heat stress. However, HSPs of 23, 36, and 66 kDa were induced by both sudden and gradual exposure to heat stress. In general, total protein content decreased under both heat acclimation and sudden heat stress. Cystoplasmic proteins was more sensitive to increasing temperatures, with a significant decline initiated at 25 °C, while sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-soluble (membrane) protein content did not decrease significantly until temperature was elevated to 30 °C. The results demonstrated that both a gradual increase in temperature and sudden heat stress caused protein degradation and also induced expression of newly synthesized HSPs. Our results suggested that the induction of new HSPs during heat acclimation might be associated with the enhanced thermotolerance of creeping bentgrass, although direct correlation of these two factors is yet to be determined. This study also indicated that protein degradation could be associated with heat injury during either gradual increases in temperature or sudden heat stress.

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Deniz İnci, Liberty Galvin, Kassim Al-Khatib, and Ahmet Uludağ

.e./ha ( Table 2 ). Each population was separately treated with two formulations of glyphosate either isopropyl amine salt or potassium salt. Treatments were applied with a motorized backpack sprayer (SP126; Oleo-Mac Inc., Piano, Italy), calibrated to deliver 250

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Qiang Liu, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, James Altland, Lifei Chen, and Lijuan Jiang

. Kaya and Higgs (2002) found that Ca(NO 3 ) 2 supplementation increased the yield and dry matter of cucumber in a soil high in NaCl. Cluster analysis. Salt-tolerant plants usually have less growth reduction and less foliar salt injury at elevated

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Melek Ekinci, Ertan Yildirim, Atilla Dursun, and Metin Turan

Salinity is one of the most serious abiotic stress factors limiting crop productivity. Worldwide, 100 million ha or 5% of the arable land is adversely affected by high salt concentrations reducing crop growth and yield ( Ghassemi et al., 1995 ). In

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Matthew A. Cutulle, Howard F. Harrison Jr., Chandresakar S. Kousik, Phillip A. Wadl, and Amnon Levi

to float on seas for many months without losing seed viability ( Decker-Walters et al., 2004 ). The crop thrives in a wide range of soil types and is more tolerant of a high water table ( Yetisir et al., 2006 ) and to salt than watermelon Citrullus