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Marvin P. Pritts, Robert W. Langhans, Thomas H. Whitlow, Mary Jo Kelly, and Aimee Roberts

Floricane-fruiting (summer-bearing) raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were grown outdoors in pots in upstate New York until mid-December when the chilling requirement was fulfilled. They were moved into a greenhouse and placed at a density that is three times higher than field planting. Bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) were introduced at flowering for pollination. Fruiting occurred from mid-February through mid-April, a time when the retail price for raspberries is between $3.00 and $6.00 for a half pint (180 g). Fruit quality was high, and individual 2-year-old plants averaged 11 half pints (2 kg) of marketable fruit. These yields and retail prices are equivalent to 19,000 lb and $142,000 per acre (21 t, $350,000 per ha). Raspberry production during winter allows growers to dramatically extend the harvest season and to produce a high-value crop at a time when greenhouses often are empty.

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Patrick P. Moore and Jo Ann Robbins

Raspberry Commission. We thank R.R. Martin, Research Station, Agriculture Canada, Vancouver, B.C., for virus testing and Spooner Farms and Terry's Berries for allowing this study to be conducted in their fields. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed

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Patrick P. Moore

Cultivated raspberries may include North American red raspberry (Rubus idaeus strigosus Michx), European red raspberry (R. idaeus vulgatus Arrhen.) or black raspberry (R. occidentalis in their pedigrees. Twenty-one raspberry clones were investigated using chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphisms to determine the cytoplasm type and the amount of cytoplasmic diversity among these selected clones. The raspberry clones were selected representing North American red raspberry, European red raspberry, black raspberry and cultivars with divergent maternal lineages. Total cellular DNA was probed with two 32P-labelled fragments of tomato chloroplast DNA. Probe-restriction enzyme combinations were selected which discriminated between representatives of the two red raspberry subspecies. Raspberry clones were grouped according to the chloroplast restriction fragment patterns. The composition of the groups was compared with their pedigrees.

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Jo Ann Robbins and Patrick P. Moore

Raspberry Commission. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely io indicate. this fact.

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JoAnn Robbins and Patrick P. Moore

Raspberry Commission. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate this fact.

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Patrick P. Moore

1 Associate horticulturist. H/LA Paper no. 96-5. Washington State Univ., College of Agriculture and Home Economics, Pullman project no. 0640. Partially supported by a grant from the Washington Red Raspberry Commission. The cost of publishing this

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Michael Dossett, Jungmin Lee, and Chad E. Finn

Interest in the anthocyanin pigments of black raspberry is not limited to recent studies showing their potential health benefits. Black raspberry has a long history of use not only in jams and other processed products, but also as a natural

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Huan Zhang, Carol Miles, Shuresh Ghimire, Chris Benedict, Inga Zasada, Hang Liu, and Lisa DeVetter

The Pacific Northwest (PNW, composed of Washington and Oregon in the United States and British Columbia in Canada) is an important region for floricane-fruiting red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) production ( DeVetter et al., 2020 ; USDA NASS, 2019

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Maren J. Mochizuki, Oleg Daugovish, Miguel H. Ahumada, Shawn Ashkan, and Carol J. Lovatt

application must be demonstrated for growers to consider the practice and become advocates of industrial CO 2 recycling. Commercial raspberry production, in particular, may be a model system for CO 2 sequestration. First, raspberry plants have a large

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Eric Hanson, Brent Crain, and Katherine Hanson

During the past 10 years, fresh red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus ) production has increased dramatically as a result of improvements in production methods and year-round consumer demand for fresh, high-quality fruit. In U.S. markets alone, fresh