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Lidia Lozano, Ignasi Iglesias, Diego Micheletti, Michela Troggio, Satish Kumar, Richard K. Volz, Andrew C. Allan, David Chagné, and Susan E. Gardiner

anthocyanin content) determined on 96 apple genotypes in a breeding population from the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries–New Zealand Plant & Food Research Ltd. breeding program. SNP polymorphism in the germplasm set. Of the 384 SNP markers

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Samuel G. Obae, Mark H. Brand, and Richard C. Kaitany

Leduc’s study could have been ‘Aurea’ or mislabeled ‘Aurea Nana’. Table 1. Species, cultivar name, and general morphological characteristics of 59 Berberis cultivars whose amplified fragment length polymorphism profiles were developed. Table 2. Number

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Michael J. Havey

previously reported that the genomic region carrying a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed by cDNA AOB272 is tightly linked (0.9 cM) to Ms and converted this marker to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based polymorphism ( Gökçe et al

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Jinggui Fang and ChihCheng T. Chao

DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. The extent and patterns of DNA methylation were assessed in the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) mother plants and their offshoots using the methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique. Three types of bands were generated using 12 pairs of primers. Type I bands were present in both EcoR I + Hpa II and EcoR I + Msp I lanes; type II bands were present in EcoR I + Hpa II lanes, but not in EcoR I + Msp I lanes; and type III bands were present in EcoR I + Msp I lanes, but not in EcoR I + Hpa II lanes. The total numbers of these three types of bands were 782, 55, and 34. Among these three types of bands, the polymorphic bands were 34, 10, and 0, respectively. The distribution of polymorphic bands among mother-plants and offshoots could suggest the methylation variation occurred to the mother plants and offshoots. The methylation variation during offshoot growth of date palm was characterized as a process involving mainly of demethylation. Hypomethylation of DNA in offshoots compared with mother plants reflects the marked expression of this molecular feature, which may related to gene expression during development of offshoots. The methylation or demethylation status of specific loci in the mother plants and their offshoots might not relate their lineage but occurred randomly.

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Sriyani Rajapakse, Mark Hubbard, Albert Abbott, Robert Ballard, and John Kelly

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs) were investigated in rose cultivars as a means of reliable cultivar identification. A random genomic DNA library was generated by shotgun cloning HindIII digested fragments of DNA extracted from rose cultivar Confection into pUC8 plasmid of Escherichia coli strain JM 83. Compared to genomic clones carrying low or highly repeated sequences, clones with moderately repeated sequences were most effective in cultivar identification. These clones were identified by hybridizing rose DNA fragments from the library with genomic DNA from `Confection'. Clones with moderately repeated copy sequences were used as probes to detect the presence of RFLPs by Southern hybridization of EcoRI digested genomic DNA of various rose cultivars. Several of these probes have revealed RFLPs useful in cultivar identification. By using a combination of two or more of these probes most of the rose cultivars compared at this time can be identified. A dichotomous key useful in identification of rose cultivars was prepared from RFLPs displayed by 3A9 probe.

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Vance M. Whitaker, Stan C. Hokanson, and James Bradeen

has also been documented ( Wenefrida and Spencer, 1993 ). Genetic diversity has been documented in D. rosae using molecular marker analyses. Lee et al. (2000) examined 10 isolates using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of

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Xinwang Zhang, Ikuo Nakamura, and Masahiro Mii

. Several attempts have been made to understand the phylogeny of Petunia sensu Jussieu using molecular data obtained by various methods of DNA analysis such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ribosomal DNA ( Kabbaj et al., 1995

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Xiaomeng Li, Rangjin Xie, Zhenhua Lu, and Zhiqin Zhou

of cultivated citrus were mainly based on morphological, biochemical, and isozyme data ( Barrett and Rhodes, 1976 ; Fang, 1993 ; Scora, 1988 ; Torres et al., 1978 ). Recently, DNA markers such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs

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Hui Wei, Yan Fu, and Rajeev Arora

Intron length polymorphisms were used to investigate relationships among eight Rhododendron L. species (R. catawbiense Michaux., R. minus Michaux., R. ponticum L., R. keiskei Miquel., R. arboreum Sm., R. dichroanthum Diels., ssp. scyphocalyx Cowan., R. maximum L. and R. dauricum L.) and two hybrid cultivars [i.e., R. `PJM' (R. minus var. minus × R. dauricum) and R. `Chionoides' (R. ponticum × unknown)]. A total of 27 of these markers were used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the species and draw inferences about the parentage of the cultivars, which is partially unknown. In general the expressed sequence tag-polymerase chain reaction (EST-PCR) marker-based phylogenetic map of the eight species is congruent with the currently accepted morphology-based classification of these species at the subgenus as well as the section level. However, the constructed phylogenetic tree revealed that, at the subsection level, two species, R. arboreum (subsection Arborea Sleum.) and R. dichroanthum (subsection Neriiflora Sleum.), are grouped under the same “clade” (80% bootstrap score), suggesting that these species are more closely related than indicated in the current classification system that places them in separate subsections/clades. Moreover, our phylogenetic analysis of the three species belonging to section Ponticum G. Don. demonstrated a closer phylogenetic relationship between R. ponticum and R. maximum (bootstrap score of 74%) than between these species and R. catawbiense; such observation is consistent with a recent phylogenetic analysis of section Ponticum by Milne (2004) using the sequences of a chloroplast gene. Parentage analysis for the two cultivars confirmed the interspecific lineage of R. `PJM' and provided genetic support for the speculated R. ponticum and R. maximum parentage of R. `Chionoides'. Our results indicate that, in addition to their use in mapping studies, intron-flanking EST-based PCR markers are valuable tools for conducting phylogenetic and parentage analyses and/or gene flow studies.

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Wanmei Jin, Qiang Zhang, Sunzhong Liu, Qinping Wei, Wanmei Jin, Zongming Cheng, Xiaohui Xue, and Tingzhen Yang

et al., 2006 ). The polymorphic SSR bands generated by viable 62 primer pairs were calculated for polymorphism information content (PIC) based on Hurtado's formula, which measures gene diversity ( Hurtado et al., 2008 ). The formula is: where f i