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Johan Desaeger and Alex Csinos

The effects of drip-applied 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin on fumigant soil gas levels and growth of vegetable seedlings were investigated in three separate tests in Tifton, Ga. Tests were conducted in Spring 2002, Fall 2002, and Spring 2003. Phytotoxicity of 1,3-D + chloropicrin was induced in the 2002 tests by applying progressively higher rates (0 to 374 L·ha–1) of drip-irrigated InLine (an emulsifiable formulation (EC) containing 60.8% 1,3-D and 33.3% chloropicrin) and planting vegetable seedlings within four days after application. Vegetables evaluated were tomato, pepper and cucumber (Spring 2002), and tomato and squash (Fall 2002). In Spring 2003, the effects of 1,3-D formulation (InLine versus Telone EC, an EC containing 94% 1,3-D), plastic mulch type [low density polyethylene (LDPE) versus virtually impermeable film (VIF)] and drip tape configuration (one versus two drip tapes) on fumigant soil gas levels and growth of tomato were investigated. Tomato was planted after the recommended 3-week waiting period. Fumigant concentrations in soil were measured using Gastec detection tubes at 1 to 4 days after drip fumigation in all three tests. Measured fumigant soil gas concentrations were correlated with fumigant application rates in Spring 2002, but not in Fall 2002. Vegetables were visibly affected by residual fumigant levels in the soil and showed symptoms such as leaf chlorosis (cucumber, squash and pepper), leaf bronzing (tomato) and stem browning and stunting (all crops). Fumigant soil air levels were negatively and linearly correlated with different plant growth parameters, in particular plant vigor. The cucurbit crops showed an immediate response and high mortality within 1 week after planting. Surviving plants recovered well in fall. The solanaceous crops showed a more delayed response and lower mortality rates. However, phytotoxic effects with tomato and pepper were more persistent and plants did not seem to recover with time. Overall, fumigant residue levels and potential phytotoxicity were greater in spring than in fall. Greater fumigant soil concentrations were measured under VIF as compared to LDPE plastic mulch. The effect of drip-tape configuration varied with the type of plastic mulch that was used. The double-tape treatment resulted in lower fumigant levels at the bed center under LDPE mulch, and higher fumigant levels at the bed shoulder under VIF mulch. The formulation containing 94% 1,3-D resulted in higher soil fumigant levels as compared to the formulation containing 61% 1,3-D and 33% chloropicrin, especially with VIF mulch. Early plant vigor of tomato was negatively correlated with fumigant soil gas levels, and was especially poor following drip fumigation with 94% 1,3-D under VIF mulch.

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Liping Zhen and Leslie H. Fuchigami

Hydrogen cyanamide (CY) induced earlier, more uniform, and a higher percentage of budbreak in poplar (Populus alba × P. gradidentata, N C 5339). c y was phytotoxic at 0.5 M or higher concentration. Percent budbreak increased and percent dieback decreased when plants were treated with a mixture of CY and Cys. No difference was found in percent budbreak or dieback between plants treated with CY alone and a mixture of CY and Ser. Mixing CY with Cys concentrations in vitro reduced the percentage of the cyano group, and mixing of Cys with CY concentrations decreased the percentage of the SH group remaining in the mixture. Mixing CY with Ser concentrations in vitro had no effect on CY level. These studies suggest that the SH group reacts with CY directly and the improvement of budbreak and toxicity caused by mixing CY and Cys may be due to the reduction of CY concentration.

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Timothy K. Broschat

Twenty-two preemergent herbicides were applied at their maximum labeled rates and twice those rates to determine their safety and effectiveness on areca palm [Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & Dransf.], pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien), and mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl.). Two products, dichlobenil and metolachlor showed consistent phytotoxicity on all three species. Several of the remaining products caused death of the apical meristem in mexican fan palms and reduced growth rates in pygmy date palms, but most caused little damage to areca palms. Herbicides applied as sprays generally remained effective for 2 to 4 months, whereas granular products, especially those containing oxyfluorfen plus another chemical, were effective for up to 8 months.

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Russell W. Wallace*

Field research was conducted to evaluate pre-transplant (PRE) applications of sulfentrazone (0.20 or 0.41 kg·ha-1 a.i.) and flufenacet (0.045 kg·ha-1 a.i.), or early postemergence (EPOST) halosulfuron (0.027, 0.036 or 0.054 kg·ha-1 a.i.) on phytotoxicity and yield of field-grown chili (var. Sonora), jalapeño (var. Grande) and bell (var. Giant Belle) peppers (Capiscum annuum) in Texas. Crop injury recorded 15 days after sulfentrazone treatments (DAT) showed minor stunting at the low rate, but moderate stunting and temporary leaf malformation when applied at 0.41 kg·ha-1 a.i. Increased stunting occurred 37 DAT at both rates; however, new leaf growth was not affected. Flufenacet did not result in crop injury to any of the three types grown. Phytotoxicity from halosulfuron recorded 7 DAT gave significantly higher ratings for stunting/chlorosis for broadcast EPOST treatments when compared to EPOST-directed applications. Injury from halosulfuron was temporary and considered minor with all EPOST treatments by 22 DAT. Pepper yield data showed that EPOST halosulfuron treatments were statistically equivalent to the untreated controls for each of the three types, but there was a trend for lower yields with rates higher than 0.027 kg·ha-1 a.i. All peppers treated with flufenacet gave excellent yields. Sulfentrazone applied at the high rate gave the greatest yield losses in all three types, and this was significant in the jalapeños. The results indicate that all three herbicides have potential for use in commercial pepper production in Texas. However, more research is needed to evaluate these and other herbicides for improved crop safety in peppers.

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Robert C. Ebel, Byron Wallace, and Charles Elkins

Imidacloprid is a long-term systemic insecticide that is currently labeled under the trade name Marathon (imidacloprid, 1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl-4,5-dihydro-N-nitro-1-H-imidazol-2-amine, 1% granular on fritted clay, Bayer Corp., Kansas City, Mo.) for ornamental crops grown in greenhouses. The company that markets Marathon is seeking to expand its label to greenhouse-grown vegetable crops, although the rates they plan to label have not yet been divulged. Marathon was applied to cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. `Turbo') and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Rutgers') at 0, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, and 1 tsp (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg a.i.) per 4.5-inch (550-mL) pot. Both species developed phytotoxicity symptoms of leaf chlorosis of the oldest leaves and distorted growth and marginal necrosis of newer leaves within 1 week after application. By the end of the experiment, even the lowest rate caused phytotoxicity symptoms. The symptoms were similar in appearance to Ca deficiency but cucumber foliar analysis revealed no difference in Ca, Zn, Fe, or Co across imidacloprid rates, however, Mg and B decreased whereas K and Mn increased linearly across imidacloprid rates. P, Cu, and Mo varied quadratically with 1/2 tsp (20 mg a.i.) per pot having the lowest P and Mo, and Cu increasing at the higher rates. These data indicate that imidacloprid can alter plant nutrition. The rates of imidacloprid applied here are not recommended for use on greenhouse-grown cucumber and tomato under similar growing conditions as in this study.

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Susan S. Han and Jennifer Nobel

The study was conducted to determine if ethylene or ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, can be used to induce abscission of phylloclades of four cultivars of Easter cactus [Rhipsalidopsis gaertneri (Regel) Moran] to increase efficiency in vegetative propagation. Abscission occurred within 24 hours after commencement of the ethylene treatments. Phytotoxicity, as exhibited by water soaking, transparency, and darkening of the phylloclades, as well as percent abscission, increased with increasing concentrations of ethephon (0 to 10,000 μl·liter–1). Ethylene released from ethephon, not the acidity of the solution, was determined to be the cause of the phytotoxicity. In three out of the four cultivars, vegetative and root growth from propagated phylloclades was significantly restricted by treatments with ethephon. In comparison, vegetative growth from phylloclades treated with ethylene at 20 μl·liter–1 was the same as from those treated with air. Root growth of the ethylene-treated phylloclades was not studied. The acidity of the ethephon solutions likely affected the growing regions, resulting in a reduction in growth. The study shows that treatment with ethylene gas or the use of pH-adjusted ethephon solutions may be an alternative to the labor-intensive procedures associated with vegetative propagation of Easter cactus. Chemical name used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

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William T. Haller, Lyn A. Gettys, and Taizo Uchida

must consider potential phytotoxic effects on these plants if treated water is used to irrigate landscape species. Topramezone and bispyribac-sodium provide aquatic resource managers with alternate modes of action to control fluridone-resistant hydrilla

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Ashok K. Alva

The aim of this study was to investigate soil pH and copper (Cu) interactions affecting Cu phytotoxicity to young citrus trees on different rootstocks. Hamlin oranges on either Carrizo citrange, sour orange, or rough lemon rootstocks were grown on Candler fine sand at varying soil pH (5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5) without additional Cu or soil applied Cu (liquid form; 240 kg Cu/ha; nine pre- and five post-planting applications over a period of 43 months). Increasing soil pH increased tree height, canopy volume and trunk diameter of trees on all three rootstocks, regardless of Cu treatments. Tree growth response to an increase in soil pH was greater in Cu amended as compared to unamended treatments. Response to pH increase above 6.0 was marginal as compared to that for pH increase from 5.0 to 6.0. Leaf Cu concentrations showed negligible differences in response to Cu treatments; however, Cu concentrations in fibrous roots increased by 126 to 152% in Cu amended as compared to unamended treatments.

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J.L. Nus and M.A. Sandburg

Throughout the north-south climatic transition zone of the eastern United States, cool- and warm-season turfgrasses are used adjacently. A greenhouse study with creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) was initiated to determine threshold concentrations of atrazine, an effective pre- and postemergence herbicide for warm-season turfgrasses, that would result in unacceptable levels of phytotoxicity to seedling and mature creeping bentgrass. Mature and 8-week-old seedling `Penncross' creeping bentgrass were given 6.5 mm of daily irrigation of untreated water or water containing atrazine at 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.64, 1.28, or 2.56 mg·liter-1. A model of quality ratings taken 20 days after the initiation of treatments indicated threshold concentrations resulting in unacceptable turf quality to be approximately 0.05 and 0.08 mg·liter-1 for seedling and mature bentgrass, respectively. Chemical name used: 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-5-isopropylamino-s-triazine (atrazine).

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J.P. Syvertsen and M. Salyani

The effects of three highly refined petroleum spray oils and of ambient vapor pressure on net CO2 assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance of water vapor (gs) of single grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) leaves were investigated. Overall, gs of various-aged leaves was decreased by a large leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (VPD). In the first experiment, oils with midpoint distillation temperatures (50% DT) of 224, 235, and 247C were applied with a hand atomizer at concentrations of 0, 1%, and 4% oil emulsions in water and 100% oil, all with 0.82% surfactant (by volume). There was a tendency for oils of the two higher DT to decrease net gas exchange during a subsequent 12 days, but significant differences could not be attributed to oil DT. Both A and gs were reduced by the two higher concentrations of oil mixtures. In the second experiment, a commercial airblast sprayer was used to apply the 224C oil at 4% or the 235C oil at 2% and 4% mixtures plus surfactant under field conditions. There were no significant effects of oil treatments on net gas exchange of leaves either measured under moderate VPD outdoors 1 day after spraying or under low VPD in the laboratory 2 days after spraying. No visible phytotoxic symptoms were observed in either experiment.