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Sogo Nishio, Masahiko Yamada, Norio Takada, Hidenori Kato, Noriyuki Onoue, Yutaka Sawamura, and Toshihiro Saito

inheritance of PS and II and the associated selection efficiency. However, breeders have recorded the performance data for those traits of cultivars/selections for many years in the NIFTS breeding program. Environmental variance in an orchard comprises the

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Hassan Hajnajari, Bahaeddin Chashnidel, Kourosh Vahdati, Mohsen Ebrahimi, Alireza Nabipour, and Esmaeil Fallahi

traits for progeny selection in the breeding program demands genetic studies to distinguish the environmental and the genetic variances from the phenotypic variances, to calculate the expected genetic contribution in the form of heritability, and to

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Ossama Kodad and Rafel Socias i Company

-significant difference ( lsd ) multiple-range test. Results Genotypic and environmental variability. As expected, all nut and kernel traits showed great variability between selections, reflecting each selection genotype ( Table 1 ). However, differences

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James Luby, Alicia Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, David Bedford, Susan Brown, Kate Evans, Cholani Weebadde, Audrey Sebolt, and Amy F. Iezzoni

fruit quality and tree traits important in cultivar selection, each trait was assigned a value for each respondent. The most important trait for each respondent was assigned a value of five, the second most important trait was assigned a value of four

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Zena Rawandoozi, Timothy Hartmann, David Byrne, and Silvia Carpenedo

peach fruit available throughout the year ( Byrne, 2012 ). Likewise, fruit quality is essential for a new commercial cultivar. Selection for these traits is complicated because most of them are controlled by several loci that are influenced by

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Katie O’Connor, Ben Hayes, Craig Hardner, Mobashwer Alam, and Bruce Topp

interactions ( Hardner et al., 2002 ). Yield component traits such as NW, KW, and KR are also important selection criteria for new varieties ( Hardner et al., 2009 ). NW between 6.5 and 7.5 g per nut is desirable, due to the ease of handling and cracking

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Stanisław Pluta, Edward Żurawicz, Marcin Studnicki, and Wiesław Mądry

strategies for gooseberry cultivar production. This process involves the optimal selection of parental material for crossing with the highest breeding values, an effective use of the genotypes of donors with desired traits, choice of the breeding method, and

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Matthew D. Clark and Eric Watkins

done through recurrent selection on multiple traits because most cultivars of cross-pollinated perennial grasses are typically bred to develop synthetic varieties or improved populations ( De Araujo and Coulman, 2002 ). The strong correlations ( Table 3

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Mehdi Mohebodini, Naser Sabaghnia, and Mohsen Janmohammadi

could be brought through selection of component traits directly concerned with final seed yield like TSW and NSP which showed positive direct effects and could serve as selection criteria in garden cress breeding programs. Literature Cited Asghari

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Limeng Xie, Patricia Klein, Kevin Crosby, and John Jifon

programs to assist in the selection of alleles that control traits, such as root traits, that are difficult or expensive to phenotype and can identify QTL for traits of interest ( Champoux et al., 1995 ; Coudert et al., 2010 ). Many studies on maize ( Zea