are often larger after chromosome doubling ( Campos et al., 2009 ; Wu et al., 2012 ; Ye et al., 2010 ). However, very little information has been available on the effects of increasing ploidy level on other attributes of fruit quality considered
Jin-Hu Wu, A. Ross Ferguson, Brian G. Murray, Alison M. Duffy, Yilin Jia, Canhong Cheng, and Philip J. Martin
Thomas G. Beckman, Jose X. Chaparro, and Patrick J. Conner
some years, the cream white flesh contains red pigment flecks in the outer flesh, particularly on the sun-exposed side of the fruit, but there is little or no red in the flesh at the pit (the pit itself is red). Flesh texture is smooth, without strings
Mark Joseph Stephens, Chaim Kempler, and Harvey K. Hall
‘Moutere’ ( Fig. 1 ) is a new floricane-fruiting red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) cultivar from The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Limited (HortResearch). ‘Moutere’ produces high yields of attractive large-sized fruit
Ksenija Gasic, John E. Preece, and David Karp
. Martinelli, F. Tagliani, D. Azzolini, P. Castagnoli, and A. Castagnoli. Gala × A3-7; selected 2004; USPP 24,550; 17 June 2014. Fruit: rounded and slightly flattened; 66 mm height × 83 mm diameter; skin smooth, with little bloom or greasiness; solid red
Chunxian Chen and William R. Okie
% bright red, with a yellow ground color and little pubescence ( Fig. 2 ). The fruit are medium to large, ≈6 to 7 cm (≈2.5–2.8 inches) in diameter when adequately thinned. Both fruit set and size are not significantly different from those of ‘GaLa
John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach
. Immature fruit are black and mature to red. G02C17 is a progenitor of the ornamental pepper cultivar Black Pearl ( Stommel and Griesbach, 2005 ). The respective populations were developed by crossing greenhouse-grown plants using standard emasculation
Bruce D. Whitaker
Lipid composition and pigment content were determined in pericarp of `Pik Red' tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) that were harvested when mature-green (MG) then ripened for 1 or 14 days at 20C, chilled for 11 or 21 days at 2C, or chilled for 21 days and transferred to 20C for 4 days (rewarmed). During ripening, chlorophyll fell below a detectable level, carotenes increased 100-fold, phospholipids (PLs) dropped ≈20%, and galactolipids (GLs) dropped ≈35%. Fatty-acid unsaturation decreased slightly. Steryl esters (SEs), more than free sterols (FSs) and steryl glycosides (SGs), increased at the expense of acylated steryl glycosides (ASGs), and in all four steryl lipids, the stigmasterol: sitosterol ratio rose dramatically, whereas the level of isofucosterol fell sharply. During chilling, chlorophyll declined ≈40% and carotenes ≈60%. PL content did not change, whereas GL fell ≈15%. Fatty-acid unsaturation increased slightly. FS, much more than SG and SE, increased at the expense of ASG. The stigmasterol: sitosterol ratio changed little in ASG, SG, and SE but declined in FS. Isofucosterol increased in FS and SE. Rewarming had little effect on the levels of chlorophyll, carotenes, or PL levels, but caused GL to fall another ≈15%. Fatty-acid unsaturation decreased slightly in GL and ASG. The distribution of total sterol in ASG, SG, FS, and SE changed dramatically, yielding proportions close to those in unchilled MG fruit. Also, 4 days after rewarming, the stigmasterol: sitosterol ratio had increased sharply, particularly in FS and SE, and there was a further rise in isofucosterol in all four steryl lipids. These results indicate that chloroplast damage occurs during chilling, but PL-rich cell membranes are not degraded, even upon rewarming. Changes in sterol composition and conjugation during chilling and after rewarming could result in membrane dysfunction.
K.E. Maloney, M.P. Pritts, W.F. Wilcox, and M.E. Sorrells
Phytophthora is a severe root rot disease in most raspberry production regions throughout the world. Disease control options are limited to raised bed culture and fungicide applications. Few Phytophthora-resistant varieties are available that have commercial quality. Little is known about how soil amendments (i.e., composts, fertilizers, and limestones) influence Phytophthora control in raspberry. We evaluated the effects of preplant soil modification on the incidence of Phytophthora root rot in red raspberries. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at two sites to differentiate between the nutritional value of the amendments and the disease control value. One site has a known history of Phytophthora and a the second site is assumed to be free of the causal organism. Raspberry plant growth and fruit yield measurements were taken for all treatments. Preplant soil application of Gypsum (CaSo4) and post-plant applications of phosphorous acid sprays (H3PO3) had the greatest fruit yields compared to all other treatments in the Phytophthora-infested site. Gypsum-treated plots had greater cane diameter, cane height, and cane density compared to the control plots on the Phytophthorainfested site. A second experiment was conducted to further investigate the use of gypsum for control of Phytophthora in raspberries. Field soil was collected for use as potting medium from each of the aforementioned sites and pathogen free `Titan' plants were established in the greenhouse. After subsequent floodings, gypsum-treated soils delayed foliar disease symptoms compared to the control plots. At the end of the experiment, the control plants had 100% foliar disease symptoms and gypsum-treated pots had 33% disease symptoms. This study suggests that gypsum could be used in an integrated approach to Phytophthora management in raspberries. Future research should identify minimal effective rates of gypsum, examine other calcium sources, and determine effectiveness in other fruit crops.
Youngjae Shin, Jackie F. Nock, Rui Hai Liu, and Christopher B. Watkins
The New York strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) industry is focused on sale of relatively short term storage cultivars that are ripe at harvest. Although storage of harvested fruit at low temperatures is generally recommended, growers have reported reduced fruit quality in the market after low temperature storage. Therefore we have explored the potential for using intermediate temperatures for strawberry storage. Physical qualities and antioxidant composition of the Jewel cultivar stored in 75%, 85%, or 95% RH at 0.5, 10, and 20 °C for 4 days have been studied. Overall quality declined more rapidly at 20 °C, especially at 95% RH, than at 10 °C and 0.5 °C. There was little change in weight loss at 0.5, 10, and 20 °C for 2 days but it increased at the lowest RH at 10 °C and increased rapidly from day 3 at 20 °C in lower RHs. Firmness was maintained, or even increased, at 0.5 or 10 °C than 20 °C, but soluble solids concentrations were lower at higher than lower storage temperatures. Red color development and anthocyanin concentrations were controlled more at 0.5 or 10 °C than at 20 °C. Total phenolic compounds were higher at 20 °C than at other temperatures at all RHs. The total antioxidant capacity of berries was higher at 10 °C than at 0.5 or 20 °C. However, total ascorbic acid concentrations, flavonoid contents, and were not affected by RH and temperature. In conclusion, while the best temperature for long term storage is 0.5 °C, quality can be maintained at 10 °C for acceptable periods of time. High RH environments increase the loss of quality at higher storage temperatures. Higher storage temperatures may cause faster ripening and accumulation of antioxidant compounds, but marketable quality of the fruit may be reduced.
Alfonso Guevara, María Nicolás-Almansa, José Enrique Cos, Juan Alfonso Salazar, Domingo López, José Egea, Antonio Carrillo, Manuel Rubio, Federico García, and David Ruiz
cultivar Red Beaut and a little greater than the reference cultivar Santa Rosa ( Table 1 , Fig. 1 ). ‘victoria myrtea’ bears large and slightly flattened fruit with an average weight of 87.6 g and an equatorial section of 55.9 mm, which is larger than the