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Ting Lei, Yang Song, Xuehua Jin, Tianyu Su, and Yiwen Pu

; Paech, 1955 ; Zhao et al., 2016 ). There are three main classes of pigments that contribute to flower color: flavonoids, carotenoids, and betalains ( Griesbach, 2005 ). Anthocyanins are flavonoids that produce orange to blue–violet colors in flowers

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Qianqian Shi, Long Li, Lin Zhou, and Yan Wang

) glycopyranoside. In addition, reports have indicated that the petal epidermis cell shape can affect flower color. Conical cells lead to darker flower colors and improved color saturation. On the contrast, flat cells lead to lighter flower colors. For example, the

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Mingyue Bao, Minmin Liu, Qingxia Zhang, Tonglin Wang, Xia Sun, and Jinguang Xu

Flower color is an important characteristic of ornamental plants that results from substances in the petal cells, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and alkaloids; and various intracellular environmental factors such as the pH value and metal ion

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Guo-Gui Ning, Xue-Ping Shi, Hui-Rong Hu, Yan Yan, and Man-Zhu Bao

, although those tetraploids and triploid plants did not show the same results. Fig. 3. Comparison of flower phenotype (flower color, petal number, and flower diameter) among diploid, tetraploid, and triploid plants of a segregating F1 population from crosses

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Chunxian Chen and William R. Okie

peach flower color, but other colors have been reported ( Bassi and Monet, 2008 ), including those designated white, dark pink, red, and variegated [with various combinations of white, pink and red, such as ‘Peppermint’ and ‘Candy Cane’ ( Okie, 2013

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Xuan (Jade) Wu, Melinda J. Knuth, Charles R. Hall, and Marco A. Palma

change when high-cost flowers were substituted with lower-cost flowers of a similar color and appearance. The researchers also examined whether consumers had a preference for a particular flower symmetry among the three common symmetry types, including

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Valentina Schmitzer, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Franci Stampar, and Vlasta Cunja

-Moncrieff, 1930 ). Flower color is one of the chief features of ornamental plants, and it is shaped by their biochemistry, specifically the distribution and composition of secondary metabolites in plastids and vacuoles ( Zhao and Tao, 2015 ). Anthocyanins

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Ravi Bika, Cristi Palmer, Lisa Alexander, and Fulya Baysal-Gurel

2014 to over $120 million per year ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2014 ). The most popular species of hydrangea in the cut flower market is bigleaf hydrangea ( Hydrangea macrophylla ) because of its attractive flower and variable sepal color ( Kazaz

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Xiao-Juan Wei, Jinlin Ma, Kai-Xiang Li, Xiao-Jing Liang, and Haiying Liang

). Their flowers bloom from winter to spring, in a range of colors, forms, fragrances, and sizes. Until fairly recently, camellia flower coloration was restricted to red, purple, pink, and white. Yellow is a long-sought-after color. Traditional breeding

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Christopher J. Currey and John E. Erwin

stem and leaf cuttings or plantlets produced along leaf margins ( Descoings, 2005 ). Additionally, Kalanchoe spp. can vary in flower color, size, number, and inflorescence structure as well as foliage size, shape, and color (C. Currey, personal