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Lisa M. Oelke, Paul W. Bosland, and Robert Steiner

Despite extensive breeding efforts, no pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) cultivars with universal resistance to phytophthora root rot and foliar blight (Phytophthora capsici Leon) have been commercially released. A reason for this limitation may be that physiological races exist within P. capsici, the causal agent of phytophthora root rot and phytophthora foliar blight. Physiological races are classified by the pathogen's reactions to a set of cultivars (host differential). In this study, 18 varieties of peppers were inoculated with 10 isolates of P. capsici for phytophthora root rot, and four isolates of P. capsici for phytophthora foliar blight. The isolates originated from pepper plants growing in New Mexico, New Jersey, Italy, Korea, and Turkey. For phytophthora root rot, nine of the 10 isolates were identified as different physiological races. The four isolates used in the phytophthora foliar blight study were all determined to be different races. The identification of physiological races within P. capsici has significant implication in breeding for phytophthora root rot and phytophthora foliar blight resistance.

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Tito P. Alcantara and Paul W. Bosland

An inexpensive, rapid, and reliable seedling screening technique was developed to identify sources of resistance to foliar blight of Capsicum annuum L. caused by the fungal pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leon. Leaf surfaces of test plants were inoculated with 500 to 1000 zoospores prepared in distilled water. Seedlings were incubated for 5 days in an easy-to-construct dew chamber and observed for symptom development. `Criollo de Morelos 334' chile seedlings, a Mexican land race resistant to root rot caused by the same fungal pathogen, were highly resistant to foliar blight. All commercial cultivars tested in this study, however, were highly susceptible. No root rot symptoms were observed in any of the foliar-inoculated plants.

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Paul W. Bosland

During a natural field epidemic of curly top virus, accessions within five species of Capsicum were evaluated for resistance. Accessions were considered resistant if 0% to 25% of the individual plants were devoid of curly top virus symptoms. Resistance was found in three accessions each of C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. and one accession each of C. chacoense Hunz. and C. chinense Jacq. The resistant C. annuum accessions were `Burpee Chiltepin', `NuMex Bailey Piquin', and `NuMex Twilight', while the C. frutescens resistant accessions were USDA-Grif 9322 from Costa Rica, PI 241675 from Ecuador and `Tabasco'. The resistant C. chacoense accession was PI 273419 from Argentina and the C. chinense resistant accession was USDA-Grif 9303 from Colombia.

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Edith Isidoro, Donald J. Cotter, and G. Morris Southward

Color loss of Chile pods (Capsicum annuum L.) weathered on and off the plant was compared to that of refrigerated powder of comparable pods. Pods were harvested at 4-week intervals, dried at 65C, and ground and analyzed for color. Powder from these fruit was stored at 2C and analyzed at 4-week intervals. Pods that were weathered on or off the plant lost redness at a rate about one-half of that for refrigerated powder during 84 days of storage or weathering.

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Asmita Nagila, Soum Sanogo, O. John Idowu, and Brian J. Schutte

-season weeds and soil-borne diseases in chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) in New Mexico. However, the timing of chile pepper planting in New Mexico (March and April), combined with the need not to plant a cash crop immediately after termination and incorporation

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L. Aguilera, F.T. Davies Jr, V. Olalde-Portugal, S.A. Duray, and L. Phavaphutanon

Seedlings of Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis were grown in pots containing a pasteurized mixture of sand and sandy loam soil inoculated or noninoculated with the V-A mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck et Smith. Long Ashton nutrient solution (LANS) was modified to supply P at 0, 11 or 44 μg·ml–1. Diurnal gas exchange measurements were taken 15, 30 and 50 days after the experiment was initiated. Plant growth, leaf elemental content, and mycorrhizal development were assessed 52 days after transplanting. Gas exchange and net photosynthesis were enhanced by mycorrhiza and full strength LANS fertilization (44 μg·ml–1). The symbiosis increased leaf nutrient content of P, K, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and Al. Mycorrhizal plants had higher shoot dry weights, leaf number, leaf area, and fruit primordia than nonmycorrhizal plants with P at 0 and 11 μg·ml–1. Root colonization (arbuscules, vesicles, and internal and extraradical hyphae development) were higher with P at 0 and 11 μg·ml–1. The quantity of spores recovered in soil was independent of P treatments.

Open access

Alfredo Reyes-Tena, Gerardo Rodríguez-Alvarado, José de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, Viridiana Arreola-Romero, Kirsten Lizeth Arriaga-Solorio, Nuria Gómez-Dorantes, and Sylvia P. Fernández-Pavía

Chile pepper ( Capsicum species) is of great economic, social, and scientific importance in Mexico, which is a country with a high level of diversification of cultivars and history of domestication of this Solanaceous crop ( Aguilar-Rincón et al

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Ariadna Monroy-Barbosa and Paul W. Bosland

Phytophthora blight caused by the oomycete Phytophthora capsici Leon. is a very destructive disease and was first described attacking chile pepper plants in New Mexico ( Leonian, 1922 ). The pathogen produces several disease syndromes: foliar

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Neda Keyhaninejad, Richard D. Richins, and Mary A. O’Connell

). Phytochrome regulates expression of phytoene synthase, a key step on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in tomato fruit ( Alba et al., 2000 ; Schofield and Paliyath, 2005 ). Similar results were observed for carotenoids in pepper leaves ( Simkin et al., 2003

Open access

Ivette Guzman, Krystal Vargas, Francisco Chacon, Calen McKenzie, and Paul W. Bosland

In Capsicum, 39 species have been identified including five domesticated species, C. annuum , C. baccatum , C. chinense, Capsicum frutescens , and Capsicum pubescens ( Carrizo García et al., 2016 ). Chile peppers are an important culinary