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He Huang, Yuting Liu, Ya Pu, Mi Zhang, and Silan Dai

= ornithine aminotransferase; PDH = phosphate dehydrogenase; PT2 = phosphate transporter 2; TPS = terpenoid synthase; TPP = trehalose-6-phosphatase; MYB = myeloblastosis; PAL = phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; CHS = chalcone synthase; CHI = chalcone isomerase; FNS

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Gregory M. Peck, Candace N. DeLong, Leon D. Combs, and Keith S. Yoder

control efficacy of Regalia ® is reported to be from a unique mechanism of induced plant resistance that upregulates chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase in the phenylpropanoid pathway and induces the production and accumulation of phytoalexins ( Su

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Huihui Liu, Ke Cao, Gengrui Zhu, Weichao Fang, Changwen Chen, Xinwei Wang, and Lirong Wang

., 2014 ; Rahim et al., 2014 ; Zhou et al., 2017 ). Among the biosynthetic genes identified, there are a number of structural genes that directly encode enzymes required for the biosynthesis of anthocyanin, including chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone

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Yu Bai, Ying Zhou, Xiaoqing Tang, Yu Wang, Fangquan Wang, and Jie Yang

chalcone synthase (CHS, K00660), were implicated in plant light signaling pathways. Studying the roles of circadian-regulated genes responsible for controlling flowering could facilitate elucidation of interplays between photoperiod and the circadian clock

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Yiguang Wang, Chao Zhang, Bin Dong, Yaohui Huang, Zhiyi Bao, and Hongbo Zhao

plants of chinese flame tree, could be found for molecular plant breeding in the future study. Fig. 8. Diagram of probable anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway in fruit of chinese flame tree (CHS = chalcone synthase; CHI = chalcone isomerase; F3H = flavanone

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Xiucai Fan, Renzong Zhao, Qianqian Wang, Chonghuai Liu, and Jinggui Fang

curves and normalized against the amount of Chalcone synthase 3 ( Azuma et al., 2011 ; Jeong et al., 2004; Yakushiji et al., 2006). Results Types of anthocyanins from grape skins. Five types anthocyanins were detected in the Kyoho grapevine series

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Wenjing Li, Zihang Zhang, Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Yanfen Lu, Xiaoxiao Qin, Yujing Hu, and Yuncong Yao

tomato mutant collection J. Agr. Food Chem. 54 17 doi: 10.1021/jf061241e Tai, D. Tian, J. Zhang, J. Song, T. Yao, Y. 2014 A Malus crabapple chalcone synthase gene, McCHS, regulates red petal color and flavonoid biosynthesis PLOS ONE 9

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Bhaskar Bondada

Transcriptional regulation of the three grapevine chalcone synthase genes and their role in flavonoid synthesis in Shiraz Austral. J. Grape Wine Res. 19 221 229 Ho, Q.T. Verboven, P. Verlinden, B.E. Nicolaı, B.M. 2010 A model for gas transport in pear fruit at

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Kevin M. Folta and Sofia D. Carvalho

directly participate in chalcone synthase expression by interacting with PIF3 at the promoter ( Chen et al., 2012 ). Overall, it appears that phytochromes exert their main influence via control of transcription networks, and do so depending on the relative

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Xiaoying Dou, Jinrong Bai, Huan Wang, Ying Kong, Lixin Lang, Fang Bao, and Hongzhong Shang

include chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) ( Nie et al., 2015 ). CHS and CHI are early enzymes of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and DFR and ANS are late enzymes. The activity