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Bernadine C. Strik and David R. Bryla

Caneberries (raspberry and blackberry) are important crops in the United States with a reported 11,900 acres of blackberry in 2005 ( Strik et al., 2007 ) and 16,400 and 1650 acres of red and black raspberry in 2014, respectively [ U.S. Department of

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Ann Marie Connor, Chad E. Finn, Tony K. McGhie, and Peter A. Alspach

We thank Mary Peterson and Laura Barnett for technical assistance; Nnadozie Oraguzie and Ron Beatson for reviewing an earlier version of the manuscript; and Harvey Hall for access to the blackberry and hybridberry germplasm collection at

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Bernadine C. Strik and Amanda J. Vance

About 6000 ha of blackberry ( Rubus L. subgenus Rubus , Watson) were harvested in the United States in 2012, with 42% of this production located in Oregon ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2014 ). Oregon is the leading producer of trailing

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John R. Clark and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

‘APF-45’ was introduced to broaden the choices of this innovative, primocane-fruiting blackberry ( Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) type. This is the third in the University of Arkansas Prime-Ark® Brand Primocane Fruiting Blackberry cultivar line

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Syuan-You Lin and Shinsuke Agehara

Blackberry ( Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson) is a deciduous berry crop for which production is expanding worldwide. This trend is mainly driven by increased consumer demand, improved cultivars, and advanced production methods ( Clark and Finn

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Eric T. Stafne, Amir Rezazadeh, Melinda Miller-Butler, and Barbara J. Smith

WDD is a problem in blackberry production, especially in regions where high temperature is experienced during fruit ripening ( Bolda, 2009 ). WDD in blackberries is a tan-to-white discoloration of one to many drupelets on the fruit. Several possible

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Héctor Germán Rodríguez, Jennie Popp, Michael Thomsen, Heather Friedrich, and Curt R. Rom

Worldwide commercial blackberry ( Rubus subgenus Rubus ) production was 140,292 Mg planted in over 20,000 ha in 2005 ( Strik et al., 2007 ). North America represented 42%, Europe 31%, Asia 19%, and other regions 8% of the total world production

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Michele A. Stanton, Joseph C. Scheerens, Richard C. Funt, and John R. Clark

Blackberries, collectively known as Rubus L. subgenus Rubus Watson, are a group of taxonomically complex plants grown for their succulent aggregate fruits. Blackberry production in the United States has risen dramatically within the last

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Justine E. Vanden Heuvel and Kimberly Lewers

programs? The articles published here provide information on breeding, producing, and marketing repeat-fruiting small fruit crops using day-neutral strawberry, primocane-fruiting blackberry, and primocane-fruiting raspberry as examples.

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Rengong Meng and Chad Finn

Nuclear DNA flow cytometry was used to differentiate ploidy level and determine nuclear DNA content in Rubus. Nuclei suspensions were prepared from leaf discs of young leaves following published protocols with modifications. DNA was stained with propidium iodide. Measurement of fluorescence of 40 genotypes, whose published ploidy ranged from diploid to dodecaploid, indicated that fluorescence increased with an increase in chromosome number. Ploidy level accounted for 99% of the variation in fluorescence intensity (r 2 = 0.99) and variation among ploidy levels was much higher than within ploidy levels. This protocol was used successfully for genotypes representing eight different Rubus subgenera. Rubus ursinus Cham. and Schldl., a native blackberry species in the Pacific Northwest, which has been reported to have 6x, 8x, 9x, 10x, 11x, and 12x forms, was extensively tested. Genotypes of R. ursinus were predominantly 12x, but 6x, 7x, 8x, 9x, 11x, and 13x forms were found as well. Attempts to confirm the 13x estimates with manual counts were unsuccessful. Ploidy level of 103 genotypes in the USDA-ARS breeding program was determined by flow cytometry. Flow cytometry confirmed that genotypes from crosses among 7x and 4x parents had chromosome numbers that must be the result of nonreduced gametes. This technique was effective in differentiating chromosome numbers differing by 1x, but was not able to differentiate aneuploids. Nuclear DNA contents of 21 diploid Rubus species from five subgenera were determined by flow cytometry. Idaeobatus, Chamaebatus, and Anaplobatus were significantly lower in DNA content than those of Rubus and Cylactis. In the Rubus subgenus, R. hispidus and R. canadensis had the lowest DNA content and R. sanctus had the highest DNA content, 0.59 and 0.75 pg, respectively. Idaeobatus had greater variation in DNA content among diploid species than the Rubus subgenus, with the highest being from R. ellipticus (0.69 pg) and lowest from R. illecebrosus (0.47 pg).