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Vidyasagar R. Sathuvalli, Shawn A. Mehlenbacher, and David C. Smith

tree death in 5 to 12 years if proper control measures are not taken ( Pinkerton et al., 1993 ). The pathogen is endemic to eastern North America where the wild american hazel ( Corylus americana Marsh.) is its host. The life cycle of the pathogen is

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Samuel G. Obae, Mark H. Brand, and Richard C. Kaitany

to be alternate hosts of the fungus Puccinnia graminis Pers., which causes black stem rust (BSR) disease in wheat ( CFIA, 2012 ; USDA, 2002 ). Therefore, the movement of B. thunbergii plants across some state and international borders is

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J.L. Bi and N.C. Toscano

second or third row (alternated between the center rows in different sampling dates) in each plot. The collected samples were transported to the laboratory and the numbers of adults were counted under a microscope. Numbers of other insect pests in the

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James J. Luby and Douglas V. Shaw

they provide for critical nutrition to humans also make them a marvelous medium for a host of other organisms. Thus, yield is partly about producing tonnage, but also about the proportion of the crop that can be harvested and brought to market in a

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approach used to identify those low latitude countries where existing worldwide CM distribution reports appear to be in error. The analysis supports the concept of host-independent ecological limits to the distribution of CM. Laser Etching Is a Safe

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David C. Zlesak, John A. Eustice, and Cody L. Gensen

growth and transition to alternate arrangement as the stem produces reproductive tissue. Ageratum houstonianum is generally easy to grow, floriferous, and it does not typically have significant pest issues, all of which contribute to its popularity

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Xu-Wen Jiang, Cheng-Ran Zhang, Wei-Hua Wang, Guang-Hai Xu, and Hai-Yan Zhang

-avoidance response. Priming treatments increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes ( Panuccio et al., 2018 ), which can optimize host defense mechanisms and reduce the oxidative damage caused by the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although there

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L.J. Grauke, Bruce W. Wood, and Marvin K. Harris

–17 leaflets, borne in alternate arrangement, with reduction in leaflet number, size, and pubescence as the tree matures. Seedlings have long juvenility (5–12 years) and bear imperfect flowers at different locations on the tree. Male and female flowers mature

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Lisa McFadyen, David Robertson, Margaret Sedgley, Paul Kristiansen, and Trevor Olesen

reflects a tendency to alternate bearing ( Wilkie, 2009 ). In addition to the potential for yield decline, tree crowding presents a host of management problems, including loss of groundcover and consequent soil erosion, slow orchard floor drying after rain

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Ute Albrecht, David G. Hall, and Kim D. Bowman

in all (88%) graft-inoculated symptomatic plants. In citrus, root and shoot growth follows a cyclical pattern in which periods of root growth alternate with flushes of shoot growth ( Bevington and Castle, 1985 ). Active root growth in the ‘Valencia