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Haijie Dou, Genhua Niu, Mengmeng Gu, and Joseph G. Masabni

). Basil originates in tropical and subtropical regions and is adapted to moderately high PPFD and long-day irradiation ( Pushpangadan and George, 2012 ). However, artificial lighting accounts for ≈80% of total electricity consumption in an indoor vertical

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Joshua K. Craver, Chad T. Miller, Kimberly A. Williams, and Nora M. Bello

Professional Peat-Lite Special; Everris NA Inc., Dublin, OH) when greater than half of the plants reached ≈45% container capacity as a result of water loss. Supplemental lighting, using full spectrum lamps (Verilux, Inc., Waitsfield, VT) providing a spectrum

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Toshio Shibuya, Ryosuke Endo, Yuki Kitamura, Yoshiaki Kitaya, and Nobuaki Hayashi

. At high irradiation levels, leaves adapted to high irradiation (sun leaves) have greater photosynthetic light-use efficiency than shaded leaves ( Lichtenthaler et al., 1981 ). If adaptation of seedlings to high irradiation could be improved by growth

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Desalegn D. Serba, Osman Gulsen, Bekele G. Abeyo, Keenan L. Amundsen, Donald J. Lee, P. Stephen Baenziger, Tiffany M. Heng-Moss, Kent M. Eskridge, and Robert C. Shearman

prominent difference among ploidy levels is geographical adaptation ( Shearman et al., 2004 ). The diploids are thought to be the original forms from which the upper ploidy levels evolved and are adapted to the southern regions of buffalograss-growing areas

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Andrew K. Koeser, Sarah T. Lovell, Aaron C. Petri, Robin G. Brumfield, and J. Ryan Stewart

Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2012 ) and a North American-adapted version of the Ecoinvent Database (US-EI Version 2.2, Earthshift Inc., Huntington, VT; Earthshift, Inc., 2009 ). Electricity source information specific to the study area was obtained from the

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Elisabeth Hodgdon, Jennifer Bonina Noseworthy, and Rebecca Grube Sideman

was set to 20 °C day and night, and no supplemental lighting was used. In each experiment, all baskets were completely randomized in the greenhouse, with six replicates per cultivar in 2012, and five replicates per cultivar in 2013. Plant height, width

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Mark H. Brand and Bryan A. Connolly

been fully evaluated for ‘UCONNPC001’, but purpleleaf sandcherries tolerate winter minimum temperatures as low as about –35 °C and are best adapted to locations receiving fewer than 50 summer days with temperatures exceeding 30 °C. ‘UCONNPC001’ has

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Ariana P. Torres, Michael V. Mickelbart, and Roberto G. Lopez

PT method as described by Wright (1986) and adapted by Cavins et al. (2008) is as follows. The crop should be irrigated 30 to 60 min before collecting leachate to ensure that the container substrate is at or near full water-holding capacity. If

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Kevin M. Folta and Sofia D. Carvalho

Over the last decade there has been significant effort in improving narrow-bandwidth, solid-state lighting systems for plant growth in controlled environments. Development of the electronics and light sources has followed the convention that plants

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Toshio Shibuya, Junki Komuro, Norio Hirai, Yoshiko Sakamoto, Ryosuke Endo, and Yoshiaki Kitaya

fully expanded, the cucumber seedlings were randomly allocated to growth chambers illuminated with FLs (FPL55EX-N; Panasonic) or with MLs (DR400/TL; Toshiba Lighting and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan). The R (wavelength 600–700 nm) to FR (700–800 nm) ratio