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Frederick S. Davies and Glenn Zalman

Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) has been applied to citrus fruit since the 1950s to delay peel senescence and prolong on-tree storage ( Coggins, 1981 ; Davies, 1986 ; El-Otmani et al., 2000 ). Application of GA 3 does not typically affect internal

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Wilmer A. Barrera and David H. Picha

and Asian countries, functioning as a source of protein, essential amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber ( Johnson and Pace, 2010 ). Sweetpotato foliar tissues have shown significantly higher contents of certain WSV compared

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Mun Wye Chng and Kimberly A. Moore

dikegulac, which act by inhibiting GA levels ( Karagüzel, 1999 ; Liu and Chang, 2011b ; Norcini et al., 1994 ). Gibberellic acids play an important role in flowering pathways ( Campos-Rivero et al., 2017 ; Taiz et al., 2018 ). They promoted flowering in

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Nicole L. Waterland, John J. Finer, and Michelle L. Jones

-abscisic acid (s-ABA). Fig. 1. Visual observation of drought-stressed ‘Festive Ursula’ chrysanthemum after treatment with s-abscisic acid (s-ABA) as a drench at 0, 125, 250, or 500 mg·L −1 (ppm) or as a spray at 0, 500, or 1000 mg·L −1 . Images of plants are

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James R. Schupp, Thomas M. Kon, and H. Edwin Winzeler

withdrawal from legal use ( Greene, 2002 ; McArtney, 2011 ). Two frequently used post-bloom chemical thinners for apple, the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzyladenine and the synthetic auxin 1-napthaleneacetic acid, produce some level of thinning over a range of

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Duane W. Greene, James R. Schupp, and H. Edwin Winzeler

been effective and consistent enough to be registered for commercial use. Presently, naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), naphthaleneacetamide, carbaryl, and BA are the compounds most frequently used commercially ( Greene, 2002 ). Each thinning compound has

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Muttalip Gündoğdu, Tuncay Kan, and Mustafa Kenan Gecer

) . Chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid) is the dominant phenolic compound in apricots. The other phenolic compounds determined in apricots are neochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and their esters. (+)-Catechin and (−)-epicatechin

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Nobuko Sugimoto, A. Daniel Jones, and Randolph Beaudry

2-methylbutyl acetate, which confer typical apple aroma characteristics ( Paillard, 1990 ). The esters are largely composed of either straight- or branched-chain alkyl (alcohol-derived) and alkanoate (acid-derived) groups. The ester product is formed

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Víctor Cros, Juan José Martínez-Sánchez, and José Antonio Franco

source of bioprotective nutrients: fatty acid ω3, antioxidants, vitamins, and essential amino acids ( Miller et al., 1984 ; Simopoulos and Salem, 1986 ; Simopoulos et al., 1992 ), glutathione, and alpha-tocopherol ( Liu et al., 2000 ; Palaniswamy et al

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Fatih A. Canli and Hikmet Orhan

growers. Gibberellic acid GA 3 is used to increase the fruit firmness and the fruit size, and to delay maturity in mostly self-fertile and/or high-cropping cherry varieties in British Columbia ( Kappel and MacDonald, 2002 ) and western North America