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Laurie S. Weiss, John B. Bamberg, and Jiwan P. Palta

Solanum acaule (acl) and Solanum commersonii (cmm) represent the extremes of frost tolerance and cold acclimation ability among potato species. We have combined these species with cultivated S. tuberosum (tbr) to develop a potato with desired tuber traits and a high degree of frost tolerance. For this purpose diploid cmm was made 4x and crossed with naturally 4x acl. The F1 and F2 appear to exhibit hybrid vigor for vine growth for flowering, but none had frost tolerance greater than the parents. The F1 and F2 were crossed with S. tuberosum ssp. andigena and Katahdin via 2n eggs resulting in 6x 3-way hybrids. These hybrids were evaluated both in the field and laboratory for frost tolerance and acclimation ability. Results showed an increase of 1°C of frost tolerance and 2°C increase in cold acclimation capacity in the hybrids as compared to the sensitive tbr parents. Some of the 6x (3-way) hybrids produced significant tubers but yield and earliness needs much improvement. These results demonstrate that it should be possible to move both non acclimated freezing tolerance and cold acclimation ability from wild to cultivated species and offer exciting opportunities to enhance potato production in frost prone areas in the world.

Supported by USDA/NRI grant 91-3700-6636 to J.P.P. and J.B.B..

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Jim Mooney and Shelley H. Jansky

Resistance to the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) and green peach aphid (GPA) would be valuable if it could be effectively transferred from wild potato species to the cultivated potato. Eighteen diploid interspecific hybrids have been developed using Solanum tuberosum Gp. Tuberosum haploids (2n = 2x = 24) and the diploid wild species S. berthaultii (ber), S. chacoense (CHC), S. jamesii (jam), and S. tarijense (tar). Twenty-five genotypes per family were screened for resistance to CPB and GPA. Feeding trials were carried out on intact leaves. The degree of resistance to CPB was determined by the stage of instar development and weight of larvae after a four day feeding period; resistance to GPA was evaluated by aphid reproduction and survival after a fifteen day feeding period. Highly CPB or GPA resistant clones, compared to `Norgold Russet',, have been identified thus far. Some clones express high levels of resistance to both CPB and GPA. Crosses between resistant clones and S. tuberosum will be carried out at the diploid level in an attempt to combine resistance with good tuberization qualities.

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Jim Mooney and Shelley H. Jansky

Resistance to the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) and green peach aphid (GPA) would be valuable if it could be effectively transferred from wild potato species to the cultivated potato. Eighteen diploid interspecific hybrids have been developed using Solanum tuberosum Gp. Tuberosum haploids (2n = 2x = 24) and the diploid wild species S. berthaultii (ber), S. chacoense (CHC), S. jamesii (jam), and S. tarijense (tar). Twenty-five genotypes per family were screened for resistance to CPB and GPA. Feeding trials were carried out on intact leaves. The degree of resistance to CPB was determined by the stage of instar development and weight of larvae after a four day feeding period; resistance to GPA was evaluated by aphid reproduction and survival after a fifteen day feeding period. Highly CPB or GPA resistant clones, compared to `Norgold Russet',, have been identified thus far. Some clones express high levels of resistance to both CPB and GPA. Crosses between resistant clones and S. tuberosum will be carried out at the diploid level in an attempt to combine resistance with good tuberization qualities.

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H.L. Bhardwaj, A.S. Bhagsari, and K.G. Haynes

Three experiments, each with 100 potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) genotypes, were conducted using triple lattice designs from 1988-1989. The use of lattice designs did not improve the efficiency of these experiments over randomized complete blocks. The phenotypic stability of tuber yields of 91 genotypes, common to three experiments, was measured by regression of genotype means over environmental means. Regression coefficients indicated that 60 days after planting (DAP), genotypes adapted to high yielding environments (b > 1), had significantly higher tubers/plant, leaf area index, and yield/plant, as compared to genotypes suited to low-yielding environments. At final harvest, approximately 100 DAP, genotypes specifically adapted to high yielding environments had significantly higher tubers/plant and yield/plant than genotypes adapted to low yielding environments (b < 1). Green Mountain, Kennebec, and Norchip were adapted to high-yielding environments whereas La Chipper, Ontario, and Superior were adapted to low-yielding environments.

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W.B. Evans and D.D. Warncke

Single-plant microplots of `Russet Norkotah' potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) were grown outdoors in a 5 × 5 factorial RCBD of indigenous phosphorous level (200, 325, 450, 575, 700 kg·ha-1 Bray-Kurtz Pl extractable; McBride sandy loam) and banded triple super phosphate (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 kg P2O5/ha). Disease in the low P soil that was used to create the four lower P soil blends completely confounds response of the plants across indigenous P levels and might have accentuated responses within levels. Plants responded to fertilizer P with tuber yield increases of 100, 70, 40, and 10 percent within the 200, 325, 450, and 575 indigenous P levels, respectively. Fertilizer P also increased marketable yield and tuber P concentration. Neither indigenous nor fertilizer P altered tuber specific gravity.

Companion studies compare the responses of corn (Zea mays L.) and potato to indigenous soil P levels and quantify P uptake among potato cultivars in solution culture.

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E.B.G. Feibert, S.R. James, K.A. Rykbost, A.R. Mitchell, and C.C. Shock

Previously published research suggests that the yield and water-use efficiency of C-3 plants can be enhanced through foliar-applied methanol. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) grown in Oregon at Klamath Falls, Madras, and Ontario were subjected to repeated foliar methanol treatments during the 1993 season. Methanol was applied at 20%, 40%, and 80% concentration with Triton X-100 sticker-spreader at 0.1%, and methanol was applied at 20% and 40% without Triton X-100. Methanol had no effect on tuber yield, size distribution, grade, or specific gravity at any location. Tuber stem-end fry color showed no methanol response at the two locations where it was measured. Soil water potential (measured at Madras and Ontario) showed no difference in water-use efficiency between methanol-treated and nontreated potato plants.

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James A. Okeyo and Ronald D. Morse

Seed tubers of `Yukon Gold' (Solanum tuberosum L.) exhibit strong apical dominance, resulting in relatively poor stem emergence. Cutting seed tubers to overcome apical dominance in `Yukon Gold' results in irregular, uneven stem emergence. In 1992 and 1993, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dehaulming (excising stems to ground level after field emergence) whole, cross- and longitudinal-cut seed tubers of `Yukon Gold' on canopy growth and tuber yield. For all seed piece types, dehaulming during the first week of field emergence produced uniform plant stands and increased yields of U.S. no. 1 tubers by 16 and 42% and large tubers (> 6.4 cm dia.) by 340 and 64% in 1992 and 1993, respectively. Our data indicate that tuber bulking rate was increased by dehaulming. The possible causes and implications of increased tuber bulking rates in dehaulmed potato plants are discussed.

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George H. Clough

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) cv. `Russet Burbank' response to source of side-dress Ca fertilization applied at 0, 28 and 56 kg·ha-1 Ca on fine sandy loam soil was evaluated. Side-dress Ca source and rate did not affect number or total weight of tubers/hill, average tuber weight, or tuber macronutrient concentrations at mid-season. Tuber B concentration was significantly greater with the 12-0-0-10.5 source as compared to the check. Tuber Fe concentration decreased linearly as 22-0-0-7 rate increased from 0 to 56 kg·ha-1 Ca. No other micronutrient concentration was affected by the applied treatments. Calcium fertilization had no effect on tuber yield, grade distribution, or specific gravity. The predominant internal defect observed was brown center, which was reduced at harvest by side-dress Ca application. Internal quality and french fry color were evaluated after storage for 4 months.

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J.H. van den Berg, M.W. Bonierbale, E.E. Ewing, R.L. Plaisted, and S.D. Tanksley

Tuberization and stolonization of cuttings were used as a model system to assess response to photoperiod in segregating potato progenies. The progenies were from backcrosses of a diploid hybrid between Solanum tuberosum and the short day requiring S. berthaultii to both parent species. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analyses had been performed on these progenies as a part of other investigations. The RFLP maps were used to identify the loci controlling the photoperiod responses characterized by the cuttings. In the S. berthaultii backcross population, one locus appeared to control the response of cuttings only under long photoperiods, and coincided with a locus detected for stolonization on whole plants; a second locus was effective for tuberization under short photoperiods but was not detected with certainty under long photoperiods. Data analysis for the second backcross population is currently underway.

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Mari Marutani

Sunn-hemp, Crotalaria juncea L. cv. Tropic Sun was developed in Hawaii in 1982 and recently introduced to the island of Guam by USDA Soil Conservation Service as a potential green manure crop. An evaluation of various legumes at three different soil regimes revealed that sunn-hemp produced greater biomass than other plants. In the study of the effects of sunn-hemp in subsequent vegetable production, slightly greater canopy was observed for potato, Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec, with green manuring with sunn-hemp than without. Yield of head cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capita cv. KK Cross, was higher with green manuring (1085.5g/head) than without (725.4g/plant). Competition between indigenous rhizobia and introduced inoculant seems to exist at some locations. Major constraints in using sunn-hemp as green manure on the island are its limited seed sources and requirements of additional labor. Education and promotion of using this legume in a long term soil-improving system is needed.