Temporal and spatial combinations of tree-row weed suppression treatments were evaluated during 5 years in a New York apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Imperial Gala on Malling 26 rootstocks) orchard planted in Apr. 1991, and provided with trickle irrigation. Twenty-eight factorial treatment combinations [0, 2, 4, and 6 m2 weed-free areas (WFAs); and May, June, July, August, May + June, June + July, May + June + July, and June + July + August weed-free times (WFTs)] were maintained from 1991 to 1995 by postemergence paraquat herbicide applications in tree-row strips. Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) growth and yield were monitored annually, and few differences were observed as WFA increased from 2 to 4 to 6 m2 per tree. However, WFT substantially influenced TCA, fruit production, and yield efficiency. Early summer WFTs increased TCA during the first two growing seasons, compared with late summer treatments. When trees came into production in 1993-94, yields increased as the duration of WFT increased, but where similar periods of WFT had been established later during the growing season, annual yield, cumulative yield efficiency, and the ratio of crop value to weed-control costs were all reduced. Groundcover species distribution was evaluated each year in September, and graminaceous weeds were more prevalent in the early and midsummer WFTs, while herbaceous broadleaf weeds dominated in the August treatments. A quadratic model regressing cumulative yield efficiency on WFTs grouped into 30-, 60-, and 90-day categories showed that efficiency peaked between 60 and 90 days of WFT. It appeared that timing of weed suppression may be as important as the area of suppression beneath trees in comparable apple orchards, that early summer weed control was especially important for newly planted trees, and that drip irrigation allowed reductions in the area and amount of tree-row herbicide applications, without significant losses in apple tree growth or crop value.
Ian A Merwin and John A. Ray
William J. Sciarappa* and Gary C. Pavllis
Weeds are especially problematic in highbush blueberry which has a long establishment period, shallow-fibrous roots, and poor competitive ability in obtaining water, nutrients and sunlight. Commercial approaches in certified organic blueberry fields compared horticultural management methods in two New Jersey sites. The trials utilized both new and established blueberry blocks having trickle or overhead irrigation. Commercial methods investigated included rotary cultivation, mowing, propane flaming, cover crops, landscape fabric, and various mulches. Mulch comparisons included pine bark mulch, hardwood mulch, coffee grinds, cocoa grinds, municipal leaf mulch, and composted tea leaves. 3' × 12' plots were replicated 4 times in 4 adjoining rows. Applications of 3-4 inches of these mulches within the crop row to a new planting of Duke highbush blueberry have provided a combined weed control level of ca. 95% without landscape fabric and ≈98% with landscape fabric during 2003. Walkway weed suppression in new plantings was achieved with the establishment of two types of fine leafed turf fescues and monthly mowings. Bare ground percentage decreased from 80% to <2% within one year's time as these fine fescues gradually out-competed annual weeds for space. These fescue cover crops increased ground coverage from 8% to >95% over the seven month growing season. Such varieties were selected because they have good germination, require little water, use limited nitrogen and can squeeze out weeds through allelopathy. Applied research studies indicate that several suitable methods can be utilized for effective weed management in organic highbush blueberry production systems.
Don R. La Bonte, Howard F. Harrison and Carl E. Motsenbocker
Field experiments were conducted to assess how sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] clones interfere with weeds and how clones tolerate weed interference. Eleven clones with architecturally different canopies were evaluated for yield, canopy surface area and dry mass, weed dry mass, and light interception at ground level. A 2-fold difference in ground area covered by canopy surface area was observed among the eleven clones 42 days after planting, and a 3-fold difference in canopy dry mass at harvest. Yields were reduced from 14% to 68% by weed interference. The yields of high-yielding clones, `Beauregard', `Excel', L87-125, `Regal', `Centennial', and W-274, were reduced to a significantly greater extent by weeds than were yields of the other five clones. No differences were observed between clones for weed suppression as measured by weed dry mass at harvest and ground light interception. Short-internode and long-internode clones had similar competitive abilities. Yield of high-yielding clones was impacted more by weed interference than was that of low-yielding clones.
Diana George Chapin and Lois Berg Stack
A 2-year field study was initiated in May 1994 to show the effects of alternative weed control methods on weed suppression and cut flower yield. Cultural and economic analyses evaluate the feasibility of various management decisions. Gomphrena globosa cv. Woodcreek Pink seedlings were transplanted at 12-inch spacings with the following treatments: 10 mm chopped straw mulch, 10 mm shredded paper mulch, 1.25 mm black plastic mulch, bare soil with postemergent herbicide (Glyphosate) and bare soil with hand weed control. First-year results of the study show weed control was statistically equal between plastic, herbicide, and hand control. These methods provided significantly better barriers to weed growth than shredded paper and oat straw. Economic analyses show variation in the cost efficiency of these methods, however. It is expected that the results of the first year will be corroborated in 1995 for the herbicide, hand control, and plastic treatments, but will reflect change in the chopped straw and shredded paper treatments due to improved focus on experimental design and material selection.
Teresa Olczyk, Yuncong Li, Waldemar Klassen and Qingren Wang
Summer cover crops can improve soil fertility by adding organic matter, supplying nutrients through mineralization, reducing nutrient leaching, and improving soil water and nutrient holding capacity. Other benefits include weed suppression and reduction of soil parasitic nematodes. A series of field experiments have been conducted at the UF IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center in Homestead, Florida to evaluate several summer cover crops for use in vegetable production in South Florida followed by field demonstrations conducted in the growers' fields. Best performing cover crops were legumes: velvet bean (Macuna deeringiana) and sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. `Tropic Sun') providing 13 and 11 Mt of dry matter/ha, respectively. Sunn hemp supplied 330 kg N/ha followed by velvet been with 310 kg N/ha. Traditional summer cover crop sorghum-Sudan produced 4 Mt of dry matter/ha and retained only 36 kg N/ha. In addition Sunn hemp significantly reduced soil parasitic nematodes for successive crops. Limitations in use of Sunn hemp by more vegetable growers in South Florida include cost and availability of seeds.
Richard P. Buchner
California walnut farmers compete with pests and diseases to produce an economically viable crop. Current control strategies work reasonably well for most pest and diseases. However, the future of these techniques is a matter of speculation. This presentation describes current production practices and potential alternatives to “traditional” pest and disease control. Codling moth, walnut husk fly, mites, navel orangeworm, aphids, and scale are typical insect pests that have an impact on California walnut production. Spray decisions using Integrated Pest Management, beneficial insect releases, mating disruption, insect growth regulators, and orchard sanitation offer potential alternatives. Major diseases include: Phytophthora crown and root rot, crown gall, oak root fungus, and walnut blight. Control options include careful site selection and orchard management, resistant rootstocks, competitive bacteria for crown gall control, and copper compounds for walnut blight suppression. Weed growth is related to the amount of light reaching the orchard floor. Mature trees often shade the orchard floor, subsequently reducing the need for weed suppression. Herbicides are typically used for vegetation control. Choice of irrigation system, cultivation, mowing, cover crops, and flaming offer potential alternatives either alone or in combination with conventional herbicides.
Kirk D. Larson
Southern California strawberry growers use clear polyethylene mulch to increase soil warming and promote plant growth and fruiting, but use of clear poly mulch is only feasible when effective preplant soil fumigation controls weeds. In the absence of methyl bromide fumigation, the use of wave-length selective (WLS) or black polyethylene bed mulches may be required for adequate weed suppression, but the influence of these materials on strawberry plant growth and productivity in southern California is not well-documented. We conducted experiments in 1994–95 and 1995–96 to determine the influence of various mulch formulations on soil temperature and growth and productivity of `Chandler' strawberry in Irvine, Calif. Clear poly and a green WLS material (IRT76, AEP Plastics) were compared in both trials; in addition, the 1995–96 trial included a brown WLS material (ALOR, PolyWest, Inc.) and a black poly mulch. For both trials, freshly dug runner plants were established in premulched beds in early October, and soil temperatures were continuously monitored at a 10-cm depth using thermocouples and a recording datalogger. Fruit harvest commenced in December and continued through June. In both years, clear poly mulch resulted in significantly greater soil temperatures, greater December plant diameters, and greater early and total fruit yields than other mulches. In both years, use of clear poly resulted in 12% greater fruit yields than the other three materials. No growth or productivity differences were observed among the WLS and black mulches, although differences were observed in mean soil temperatures.
Azolla (Azolla filiculoides) is a floating fern that maintains a symbiotic relationship with an N-fixing blue-green algae. In many parts of Asia, azolla is used as a green manure in flooded rice cultivation. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) grown under flooded conditions is used to produce a traditional Hawaiian staple, poi. Azolla has been present in Hawaii for many years, but is not used in a controlled way for either nutrient augmentation of production sites or weed suppression. In this experiment, azolla was removed from a stream on the island of Kauai and multiplied in a nursery pond. Phosphoric acid was added to the nursery pond as a nutrient (P = 5 ppm) at 5-day intervals to accelerate azolla growth. Azolla was moved from the nursery pond and added to taro production plots at a seeding rate of 488 kg·m–2. Phosphoric acid was used in production plots to hasten coverage of the water surface by azolla. Ten days after azolla inoculation, production plots were covered and taro seed pieces were planted. Weed dry weights from conventional and azolla covered plots were recorded 91 days after taro planting. Taro corms were harvested 315 days after planting. Weed dry weight in azolla plots was 86% less than conventional plots. Azolla delayed taro maturity, causing a 41% reduction in marketable corm yield.
Marvin P. Pritts and Mary Jo Kelly
Competition from weeds and an interplanted sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moensch, formerly S. sudanense (Piper) Stapf.] cover crop was allowed to occur in newly-planted strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) for varying lengths of time, and at different times during the growing season. Newly planted strawberries were most susceptible to weed and cover crop competition during the first 2 months after planting, as both runnering (stolon formation) and subsequent yield were impacted. In 1994-95, 1 month of weed competition in June reduced yield by 20%, whereas 2 months of weed competition reduced yield by 65%. However, 1 month of uncontrolled weed growth later in the growing season had little to no impact on yield, although weed biomass was much less then. Herbicide (napropamide) use alone was insufficient to prevent weed competition and yield reduction. In our study, yield was reduced 0.67 t·ha-1 or 5.5% for each 100 g·m-2 of weed biomass. The data suggest that it is critical for growers to minimize weed competition early in the planting year when weed growth is greatest. Since an interplanted sudangrass cover crop displaced a portion of the weeds, it could be seeded later in the year to provide some weed suppression without a negative impact on yield. Chemical names used: N, N, Diethyl-2-(1-naphthalenyloxy)-propionamide (napropamide); N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate).
J.P. Mitchell, W.T. Lanini, S.R. Temple, E.V. Herrero, E.M. Miyao, P. Brostrom, R. Morse and F. Thomas
Conservation tillage (CT) row crop production is currently not widely adopted in California. Recently, however, interest in evaluating the potential of CT systems to reduce production costs and improve soil quality is growing in many areas in the state. In 1997 and 1998, we evaluated four cover crop mulches (rye/vetch, triticale/vetch, Sava medic, and Sephi medic) in a CT-transplanted tomato system relative to the conventional winter fallow (CF) practice. In both years, yields were comparable to the CF under the triticale/vetch and rye/vetch mulches. Earthworm populations after 2 years of CT production were increased 2- to 5-fold under mulches relative to the CF system. Soil carbon was increased by 16% and 6% after 2 years of CT production under the triticale/vetch and rye/vetch mulches, respectively. Weed suppression under the triticale/vetch and rye/vetch was comparable to the CF with herbicide system early in the season in both years but was maintained through harvest in only one season. Soil water storage (0-90 cm) was similar at the beginning of the tomato season in triticale/vetch, rye/vetch, and fallow plots but was higher under the mulches during much of the last 45 days of the 1998 season. Further refinement of CT practices in California's vegetable production regions is needed before wider adoption is likely.