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Charles E. Barrett, Xin Zhao, and Alan W. Hodges

in two different transplant production facilities. However, to our knowledge, there have been few studies examining both the cost of grafted tomato transplants and their expected return. This information could help growers decide if the extra cost of

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Timothy Coolong and Mark A. Williams

transplant production ranged from ≈10.5 to 13 h in Lexington, KY. At these daylengths, bulbing was induced in transplants of ‘Yellow Granex’ in both years. Therefore, ‘Yellow Granex’ was not planted as it was not suitable for overwinter production. On 9 Nov

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David O. Cliffe

Transplant production utilizing cell containers has been practiced commercially in Australia for fifteen years, with Todd flats the predominant type in use. Many methods of transplant production have evolved in Australia which due to its unique climate and the needs of the horticultural industry, which grow a diverse range of crops throughout the year. Current growing practices include nutrient programs, pre-shipping treatments, and methods of transporting plants over long distances. Current production costings will be discussed. A number of areas will be discussed that warrant more research to reduce costs and also expand the concept of cell production to encompass a wider range of plant species.

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Gustavo F. Kreutz, Germán V. Sandoya, Gary K. England, and Wendy Mussoline

among content of vitamins, pigments, and sugars in baby leaf lettuce Food Sci. Nutr. 7 10 59 70 doi: 10.1002/fsn3.1196 Soundy, P. Cantliffe, D.J. Hochmuth, G.J. Stoffella, P.J. 2005 Management of nitrogen and irrigation in lettuce transplant production

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Pinki Devi, Scott Lukas, and Carol A. Miles

://content.ces.ncsu.edu/grafting-for-disease-resistance-in-heirloom-tomatoes > Rivard, C.L. Sydorovych, O. O’Connell, S. Peet, M.M. Louws, F.J. 2010 An economic analysis of two grafted tomato transplant production systems in the United States HortTechnology 20 794 803 Roberts, W. Bruton, B. Fish, W. Taylor, M. 2007 Using grafted

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Amy Simonne, Eric Simonne, Ronald Eitenmiller, and Christine Harris Coker

Journal paper R-08740 of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. We gratefully thank farm crews of the Extension centers, the seed companies, Lewis Taylor Farm, Inc. Tifton, GA. for transplant production, and W

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Nicolas Tremblay and André Gosselin

Since they grow nearly exponentially, plants in their juvenile phase can benefit more than mature ones of optimal growing conditions. Transplant production in greenhouses offers the opportunity to optimize growing factors in order to reduce production time and improve transplant quality. Carbon dioxide and light are the two driving forces of photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide concentration can be enriched in the greenhouse atmosphere, leading to heavier transplants with thicker leaves and reduced transpiration rates. Supplementary lighting is often considered as more effective than CO2 enrichment for transplant production. It can be used not only to speed up growth and produce higher quality plants, but also to help in production planning. However, residual effects on transplant field yield of CO2 enrichment or supplementary lighting are absent or, at the best, inconsistent.

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Albert Liptay, Peter Sikkema, and William Fonteno

The theme of this review is modulation of extension growth in transplant production through restraint of watering of the seedlings. The purpose of the modulation is to produce transplants of 1) appropriate height for ease of field setting and 2) adequate stress tolerance to withstand outdoor environmental conditions. Physiological responses of the plant are discussed in relation to the degree of water deficit stress and are related to the degree of hardening or stress tolerance development in the transplants. Optimal stress tolerance or techniques for measuring same have not been fully defined in the literature. However, stress tolerance in seedlings is necessary to withstand environmental forces such as wind and sand-blasting after the seedlings are transplanted in the field. It is also imperative that the seedlings undertake a rapid and sustained rate of growth after outdoor transplanting. Water deficit stress applied to plants elicits many different physiological responses. For example, as leaf water potential begins to decrease, leaf enlargement is inhibited before photosynthesis or respiration is affected, with the result of a higher rate of dry matter accumulation per unit leaf area. The cause of the reduced leaf area may be a result of reduced K uptake by the roots with a concomitant reduction in cell expansion. Severe water deficits however, result in overstressed seedlings with stunted growth and poor establishment when transplanted into the field. In transplant production systems, appropriate levels of water deficit stress can be used as a management tool to produce seedlings conducive to the transplanting process.

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Katsumi Ohyama, Koji Manabe, Yoshitaka Omura, Toyoki Kozai, and Chieri Kubota

To evaluate the potential use of a 24-hour photoperiod for transplant production in a closed system, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plug transplants were grown for 17 days either under a 24-hour photoperiod with a photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 200 μmol·m-2·s-1 or under a 16-hour photoperiod with a PPF of 300 μmol·m-2·s-1, resulting in the same daily integrated PPF (17.3 mol·m-2). Air temperatures were alternated between 28 °C during the first 16 hours and 16 °C for the subsequent 8 hours of each day. Fresh weight, dry weight and leaf area were 41%, 25%, and 64% greater, respectively, under the 24-hour photoperiod than under the 16-hour photoperiod. Physiological disorders (e.g., chlorosis and/or necrosis) were not observed under the 24-hour photoperiod, probably due to the alternating air temperature. Floral development of plants originating from both treatments did not differ significantly. Electric energy use efficiency of the closed system was 9% greater under the 24-hour photoperiod than under the 16-hour photoperiod. These results suggest that using a 24-hour photoperiod with relatively low PPF can reduce both initial and operational costs for transplant production in a closed system due to the reduction in the number of lamps.

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Amnon Koren* and Menahem Edelstein

Achieving a uniform stand of grafted vegetable transplants in the field is critical to the grower because of the high cost of the grafted transplants. Low and erratic stands can lead to monetary losses even in an otherwise successful crop. Establishing a uniform stand of grafted vegetable transplants in the field depends on several additive parameters prevailing in the nursery and in the field. These include seed quality, grafted-transplant quality, and agrotechniques suitable for the special needs of grafted transplants. Seed quality and seed health should be given special emphasis as compared with non-grafted-transplant production. Grafted transplants spend more time in the nursery, are treated manually more, and are more susceptible to seed-borne pathogens. Field preparation, plastic mulch, irrigation and fertilization are important, especially in warm, mediterranean climates.