Tomatoes, cv. Agriset 761, were grown in Spring and Fall 1996 at three compost rates, 0x, 1x and 2x (1x = 12 t·ha-1). Production system was the full-bed polyethylene mulch with micro- (trickle-) irrigation. The crop in each treatment received (kg·ha-1) 73 N, 34 P, and 121 K from preplant dry, and 225 N and 372 K from injected liquid fertilizers in 117 days during the spring and in 107 days in the fall. Plant growth (plant height) was best with the lx compost rate. Fruits were harvested five times in the spring and four times in the fall. Compost amendments in both seasons delayed fruit maturity. In the spring, marketable yields in the first two harvests were higher (P < 0.05) without than with compost. For the season, marketable yields (t·ha-1) were 57 with 0x, 71 with 1x, and 77 with 2x compost rate (P < 0.001). In the fall, yield differences were smaller or nonsignificant among the treatments and marketable yields for the season were highest with the 1x compost rate.
A. A. Csizinszky
Italian parsley (parsley) Petroselinum crispum, summer savory (savory) Satureja hortensis, sweet marjoram (marjoram) Origanum majoranna, and thyme Thymus vulgaris, were evaluated for their yield potential in multiple harvest during the fall–winter–spring (Dec.–May 1997–98). The herbs were grown with the full-bed polyethylene mulch-micro (trickle) irrigation system. Experimental design was a split-plot arranged in three randomized complete blocks. Main plots were two N–P–K treatments: 0 N–P–K or N and K from a liquid 4N–0P–3.32K fertilizer injected at 0.77 N and 0.64 K kg/ha per day. In the subplots, compost was applied in a 4 to 8 inches wide band on the pre-bed at 0x, 1x, 2x, and 4x rates (1x = 4.5 t·ha–1). Parsley and marjoram yields in the first three harvests and thyme yields in the first two harvests were similar with 0x compost and N + K injected fertilizers to yields with 3x and 4x compost rates with no injected N + K fertilizers. For the season, yields were higher with injected N + K fertilizers with or without compost, than in the compost treated plots with no N + K fertilizers.
Greg D. Hoyt
An experiment was established to determine the effect of different winter cover crops residues on yields of no-till pumpkins, yellow summer squash, and sweet corn. Residue treatments of fallow, triticale, crimson clover, little barley, and crimson clover + little barley were fall established and killed before spring no-till planting in 1998 and 1999. All summer vegetables received recommended fertilizer rates and labeled pesticides. Spring cover crop growth and biomass measurements ranged from 1873 to 6362 kg/ha. No-till sweet corn yields among the various cover residue treatments were greater where crimson clover and crimson clover + little barley (mixture) were used as residue in 1999, but not significantly different in 1998. No-till pumpkins showed the beneficial affect cover crop residue had on vegetable yields when dry conditions exist. Triticale and crimson clover + little barley (mixture) residues reduced soil water evaporation and produced more numbers of fruit per hectare (5049 and 5214, respectively) and greater weights of fruit (20.8 and 20.9 Mg/ha) than the other residue treatments (3725 to 4221 fruit/ha and 11.8 to 16.1 Mg/ha, respectively). No-till summer squash harvest showed steady increases in yield through time by all treatments with crimson clover residue treatment with the greatest squash yields and triticale and little barley residue treatments with the lowest squash yields. We found that sweet corn and squash yields were greater where legume cover residues were used compared to grass cover residues, whereas, pumpkin yields were higher where the greatest quantity of mulch was present at harvest (grass residues).
Charles A. Sanchez
The low desert region of Arizona is the major area of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production in the United States during the winter. Lettuce is commonly grown on the loam, clay loam, and clay soils of the alluvial river valleys. There is some interest in moving a portion of the vegetable production onto the sandy soils of the terraces (mesa) above the alluvial river valley to partially relieve the intensive production pressure being placed on lands in the valley. Of major concern in these sandy soils is water and N management. Studies were conducted during two seasons to evaluate the response of crisphead lettuce to sprinkler irrigation and N fertilizer and to evaluate the potential for leaching of nitrate-N on a coarse-textured soil. Lettuce yields increased in response to water and N, and were maximized by 55 cm of water and 271 kg·ha–1 N in 1991–92 and 76 cm water and 270 kg·ha–1 N in 1992–93. These water and N rates exceeded those typically required on finer-textured alluvial valley soils. At N and water rates required for maximum yields, 88% and 77% of the applied N was not recovered in the aboveground portions of the plant during the 1991–92 and 1992–93 seasons, respectively. Overall, data for the amount of N fertilizer not recovered, estimates of nitrate-N leaching determined during one growing season, and analysis of soil samples collected after harvest indicate the potential for large N leaching losses on this coarse-textured soil. Alternative production methods that enhance water and N use efficiencies, such as drip irrigation and/or the use of controlled-release fertilizers, should be considered on this sandy soil.
Florence Breuillin-Sessoms, Dominic P. Petrella, Daniel Sandor, Samuel J. Bauer, and Brian P. Horgan
Consumers often have multiple choices when purchasing retail lawn products in stores. In this study, we evaluated the acute drought performance of locally available retail lawn seed products (mixtures or blends) at two mowing heights of 2.5 and 3 inches. We hypothesized that the species present in the products and the height-of-cut differentially influence the drought resistance and recovery of the mixtures and blends. In Fall 2016 and 2017, 28 different products consisting of 25 mixtures and 3 blends of turfgrass seeds were established under a fully automated rainout shelter at the St. Paul campus of the University of Minnesota. The drought treatments lasted for 67 days in 2017, and 52 days in 2018; both the 2017 and 2018 treatments were followed by a recovery period. Data were obtained during acute drought treatments and recovery periods for visual turfgrass quality and green turfgrass cover using digital images of the plots. During the first year, several products displayed higher green stability (or the ability to remain green) at the 3-inch height-of-cut compared with the 2.5-inch height-of-cut. Products with tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) and fine fescue (Festuca sp.) as dominant species generally performed better during the drought treatments, whereas an increasing presence of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) decreased the visual drought performance of the products. During the recovery period, an effect of the interaction between mowing height and the date of data collection on the percentage of green cover was observed: the lower mowing height improved the early recovery of green cover after acute drought. These findings suggest that consumers in the upper midwestern United States and areas with a climate similar climate to that of St. Paul, MN, who are challenged with multiple choices of lawn seed products should choose products containing a higher tall fescue content and adjust their mowing heights to optimize recovery.
Bruce R. Roberts, Henry F. Decker, Lindsey M. Ganahl, and Elizabeth Yarmark
We thank the City of Columbus, Ohio, for financially supporting this work and for providing the Com-Til and flume sand. We also wish to thank The Scotts Co. and Seed Technology, Inc., for providing the bentgrass seeds used in these
Rebecca L. Turk, Helen T. Kraus, Ted E. Bilderback, William F. Hunt, and William C. Fonteno
; Passeport et al., 2009 ; U.S. EPA, 1998 ). Ksat should be 1 to 2 cm·h −1 for nutrient removal in substrates composed of a sand-based substrate that also includes 8% to 12% fines (clay and silt) and 3% to 5% organic matter ( NCDENR, 2007 ). Working with an
Jared A. Hoyle, J. Scott McElroy, and Elizabeth A. Guertal
and were a loamy sand, clay loam, and sand. Loamy sand was a Marvyn loamy sand (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kanhapludults) with pH 5.5 and 2.8% organic matter (OM). Clay loam was a Sumter silty clay (fine-silty, carbonatic, thermic Rendollic
Georgene L. Johnson, Thomas R. Sinclair, and Kevin Kenworthy
‘Tifdwarf’ bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy) grown on either U.S. Golf Association specification sand or fine sand. The results showed the same two-segment response observed in other plant species. The average
Au Trung Vo, Imane Haddidi, Hussein Daood, Zoltan Mayer, and Katalin Posta
concentration) have been published in Ocimum basilicum plants inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis ( Lee and Scagel, 2009 ). The mechanisms by which AMF alter the production of secondary metabolites in E. prostrata are still not clarified. Sand and peat