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Brian J. Boman, Mongi Zekri, and Ed Stover

Although citrus (Citrus spp.) is sensitive to salinity, acceptable production can be achieved with moderate salinity levels, depending on the climate, scion cultivar, rootstock, and irrigation-fertilizer management. Irrigation scheduling is a key factor in managing salinity in areas with salinity problems. Increasing irrigation frequency and applying water in excess of the crop water requirement are recommended to leach the salts and minimize the salt concentration in the root zone. Overhead sprinkler irrigation should be avoided when using water containing high levels of salts because salt residues can accumulate on the foliage and cause serious injury. Much of the leaf and trunk damage associated with direct foliar uptake of salts can be reduced by using microirrigation systems. Frequent fertilization using low rates is recommended through fertigation or broadcast application of dry fertilizers. Nutrient sources should have a relatively low salt index and not contain chloride (Cl) or sodium (Na). In areas where Na accumulates in soils, application of calcium (Ca) sources (e.g., gypsum) has been found to reduce the deleterious effect of Na and improve plant growth under saline conditions. Adapting plants to saline environments and increasing salt tolerance through breeding and genetic manipulation is another important method for managing salinity.

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Lakshmy Gopinath, Matthew Barton, and Justin Quetone Moss

The degradation of existing freshwater resources and variations in rainfall patterns are straining water resources needed for a growing population. Recycled irrigation water, although often high in salinity, is becoming a more prevalent solution for

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Nydia Celis, Donald L. Suarez, Laosheng Wu, Rui Li, Mary Lu Arpaia, and Peggy Mauk

as the seventh largest producer at 0.175 million tons ( FAO, 2018 ). Avocado production in California (the major U.S. producer) is increasingly affected by the scarcity of freshwater and relies on more saline waters as well as salinization of existing

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Gonzalo H. Villarino and Neil S. Mattson

). As supply of high-quality water decreases growers are being forced to irrigate their crops with poor-quality water and/or saline water ( Lieth and Burger, 1989 ). Use of recycled water to irrigate floriculture bedding plants may be warranted in the

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Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, and Christina Perez

expand the usage of reclaimed water, salt-tolerant ornamental plants should be identified for nursery production and landscapes in areas where alternative waters may be used for irrigation. Salinity decreases soil water potential and thereby makes water

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Genhua Niu, Denise S. Rodriguez, Rosa Cabrera, John Jifon, Daniel Leskovar, and Kevin Crosby

Soil salinity is a common problem in agricultural regions of the southwestern United States as a result of low rainfall, high evapotranspiration, and poor quality of irrigation water. High soil salinity leads to poor germination, delays stand

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Shasha Wu, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, James Altland, and Raul Cabrera

appealing landscape ( Niu and Rodriguez, 2006 ). Asteraceae is an exceedingly large family of flowering plants widespread in the wild and landscape. Many aster species have been studied for salt tolerance, and their responses to salinity are highly dependent

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Genhua Niu and Denise S. Rodriguez

relatively high levels of soluble salts compared with fresh water, and its salinity level depends on the source of water and treatment. For example, in California, the electrical conductivity (EC) of reclaimed water is typically two to three times that of

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Lifei Chen, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Qiang Liu, and James Altland

Water and soil salinization are global problems and are more severe in water-scarce areas such as arid and semiarid regions, where groundwater is the primary source of water. The increasing population has intensified the competition for high

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Qi Zhang and Kevin Rue

High soil salinity is often problematic to turfgrass managers. Salinity causes osmotic stress (i.e., physiological drought), ion imbalance, and phytotoxicity and adversely affects plant growth and development ( Qian and Harivandi, 2007 ), resulting