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Stephen A. Prior, G. Brett Runion, S. Christopher Marble, Hugo H. Rogers, Charles H. Gilliam, and H. Allen Torbert

landscape of both rural and urban environments and has an economic impact of $148 billion annually in the United States ( Hall et al., 2005 ). We will attempt to discuss the effects of the rise in atmospheric CO 2 concentration on plant growth and water

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Tongyin Li, Guihong Bi, Richard L. Harkess, Geoffrey C. Denny, Eugene K. Blythe, and Xiaojie Zhao

). In another study, increasing N fertilization rate was found to promote shoot growth of Rhododendron ‘Karen’, with decreasing N and phosphorus (P) fertilization rates promoting root growth ( Ristvey et al., 2007 ). Optimal plant growth was maintained

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Jyotsna Joshi, Geng Zhang, Shanqi Shen, Kanyaratt Supaibulwatana, Chihiro K.A. Watanabe, and Wataru Yamori

is the most important environmental factor affecting photosynthesis and thus yield because plant growth and yield depend on photosynthesis ( Yamori, 2016 ; Yamori and Shikanai, 2016 ; Yamori et al., 2016 ). The light intensity in the outer leaves is

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C. Yang, D.Y. Jiao, Z.Q. Cai, H.D. Gong, and G.Y. Li

− DW). Specific leaf area (SLA; i.e., area of the leaf in cm 2 ·g −1 DW) was also calculated. At the end of Apr. 2013, stem diameter at 5 cm above the soil was also measured with a calliper to assess the plant growth. Mature fruit from all P

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Diane M. Camberato, James J. Camberato, and Roberto G. Lopez

. Properties of the plant growth regulators used in the study as indicated on manufacturer label or material safety data sheet unless noted. Materials and Methods Initial carrier water characteristics. Because water is used as the carrier for the application of

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Brian E. Jackson, Robert D. Wright, and Nazim Gruda

of lime to substrates is probably based on tradition and common practice of using peat and bark-based substrates for the past three decades that require the addition of lime to increase pH for proper plant growth. The use of alternative (nonpeat or

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Amir Rezazadeh and Richard L. Harkess

and produce compact plants. Plant growth retardants are used to reduce excess shoot growth without affecting plant productivity. Most growth retardants act by inhibiting gibberellic acid biosynthesis in plants, which is involved in stem elongation

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Liang Zheng, Huaming He, and Weitang Song

Light is one of the most important environmental factors that influence plant growth and development. Light energy is captured by higher plants during photosynthesis, whereas light signaling plays primary roles in plant morphogenesis ( Abidi et al

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Metin Turan, Ertan Yildirim, Melek Ekinci, and Sanem Argin

Biostimulants are organically based plant-promoting substances/microorganisms applied to soil to increase the nutrient uptake, stimulate plant growth, increase tolerance to abiotic and biotic challenges, and improve product quality. Protein

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Tuan Anh Le, Zoltán Pék, Sándor Takács, András Neményi, Hussein G. Daood, and Lajos Helyes

efficiency of water in plant production ( Patané and Saita, 2015 ), which may contribute to saving irrigation water and thus to the preservation of this ever more restricted resource ( Parry et al., 2005 ). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria have many