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Geoffrey Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel

µmol·m –2 ·s –1 . Fig. 2. Quantum yield of photosystem II (Φ PSII ) of ‘Green Towers’ lettuce as a function of photosynthetic photon flux density ( PPFD ) based on 35 d of constant diurnal monitoring. Closed symbols represent measurements taken before

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Zengqiang Ma, Shishang Li, Meijun Zhang, Shihao Jiang, and Yulan Xiao

, artificial light is the sole light source for plant growth; photosynthetic photon flux ( PPF ), CO 2 concentration, air temperature, relative humidity, and air speed are well controlled for optimizing plant productivity and quality. The major advantages of

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Koichi Nomura, Masahiko Saito, Ikunao Tada, Tadashige Iwao, Tomihiro Yamazaki, Nobuyuki Kira, Yasuyo Nishimura, Makito Mori, Esteban Baeza, and Masaharu Kitano

Roberts, 1993 ; Pearson et al., 1995 ). Depending on the transmissivity of the cover material, the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD; I ) in the greenhouse can become considerably lower than that outside. In addition, some cover materials have

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Heidi Marie Wollaeger and Erik S. Runkle

photosynthetic photon flux ( PPF ) of 160 µmol·m −2 ·s –1 . The subscript values after each LED type represent its percentage of the total PPF , and values in parentheses are the estimated phytochrome photoequilibrium ( Sager et al., 1988 ). Table 1. Actual air

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Jiunn-Yan Hou, Tim L. Setter, and Yao-Chien Alex Chang

leaves; however, they possess the ability to reacclimate to high light ( Lin and Hsu, 2004 ). Net photosynthetic rate of Phalaenopsis saturates at 130 to 180 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 photosynthetic photon flux ( PPF ) ( Lootens and Heursel, 1998 ; Ota et al

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Liang Zheng, Qi Zhang, Kexin Zheng, Shumei Zhao, Pingzhi Wang, Jieyu Cheng, Xuesong Zhang, and Xiaowen Chen

three times at each point from 2 Mar. 2017 to 27 Apr. 2017 at the main fruit stage of tomatoes. Fig. 2. Layout of the measuring points of a greenhouse compartment. Photosynthetic photon flux density was measured at the vertical and horizontal measuring

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Jong-Seok Park and Kenji Kurata

photon flux ( PPF ) of 160 ± 15 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 at the surface of the culture media. On day 14 after sowing, the seedling roots were detached from the medium, washed, and wrapped in a urethane cube. Sixty seedlings were placed in hydroponics solution

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Ian K. Atkins and Jennifer K. Boldt

Veined’, and verbena ‘Superbena Royale Whitecap’ (top, middle, and bottom rows, respectively) grown at photosynthetic photon flux densities ( PPFDs ) of 90, 180, and 270 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 (left, center, and right columns, respectively). Plants were

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Zhengnan Yan, Long Wang, Jiaxi Dai, Yufeng Liu, Duo Lin, and Yanjie Yang

flux density of white light-emitting diodes used in the experiment. Fig. 2. Morphological characteristics of cucumber seedlings grown under different combinations of photosynthetic photon flux density (P) and photoperiod (H) with same daily light

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Jongyun Kim, Seung Won Kang, Chun Ho Pak, and Mi Seon Kim

weeks after plants were placed under different indoor light intensities [photosynthetic photon flux ( PPF )]. Error bar indicates mean ± se (n = 5). Q indicates quadratic response to PPF , and log L indicates linear response to log PPF . ***, **, and