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Yihui Cui, Peng Zhao, Hongqiang An, Nan Lv, Zifeng Zhang, Wei Pei, and Wanjun Wang

of somatic embryogenesis and focus on the formation of initial somatic embryo cells and pathways of somatic embryo’s origin. Materials and Methods Induction and regeneration of somatic embryo. Mature seeds of D . candidum were cultured in an MS

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James R. Ehleringer


Over the past 15 years tremendous progress has been made in the study of photosynthetic pathways. It is now accepted that there are 3 distinct photo-synthetic pathways in higher plants: the Calvin-Benson pathway (C3 photosynthesis), the Hatch-Slack pathway (C4 photosynthesis), and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM photosynthesis). Much progress has been made in describing the biochemistry and physiology of these pathways, but less is understood of the.genetics, ecology, evolution, and regulation of these pathways. The purpose of this review will be to bring the reader up to date on the significant details of the biochemistry and physiology of the 3 photosynthetic pathways and to present an ecological/evolutionary view of the significance of differences in the pathways.

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Qin Yang, Yan Fu, Tingting Zhang, Shu Peng, and Jie Deng

important role in the process of apple flower bud differentiation ( Xing et al., 2016 ) and grape ( Vitis vinifera ) ripening ( Zhao et al., 2017 ) and also participate in hormone pathways during litchi ( Litchi chinensis ) fruit senescence ( Yao et al

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Laura Rodriguez-Uribe, Luz Hernandez, James P. Kilcrease, Stephanie Walker, and Mary A. O’Connell

carotenoid pathways. Genetic diversity in landraces of Capsicum in Mexico ( Aguilar-Melendez et al., 2009 ; Gonzalez-Jara et al., 2011 ; Pacheco-Olvera et al., 2012 ) and in Capsicum in home gardens in Guatemala ( Guzman et al., 2005 ) has been

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Mengyang Liu, Yin Lu, Shan Wang, Fang Wu, Jingrui Li, Yanhua Wang, Jianjun Zhao, and Shuxing Shen

Leaf color is largely the result of photosynthetic pigments, primarily chlorophyll (Chl). Chl plays an essential role in light absorption for energy transfer ( Stern et al., 2004 ). The Chl biosynthesis pathway is complex and involves more than 20

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Megan J. Bowman, David K. Willis, and Philipp W. Simon

Differential expression of genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway serves as a regulatory mechanism for carotenoid accumulation in diverse plant species such as tomato [ Solanum lycopersicum ( Fray and Grierson, 1993 ; Ronen et al., 2000

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Xiaohua Yang, Susan K. Brown, and Peter J. Davies

the GA signaling pathway ( Sponsel and Hedden, 2010 ). Six endogenous DELLA proteins were identified in apple ( Foster et al., 2007 ) and there is a significant conservation of gene function between DELLA proteins from apple and arabidopsis

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Xiaoying Dou, Jinrong Bai, Huan Wang, Ying Kong, Lixin Lang, Fang Bao, and Hongzhong Shang

( Grotewold, 2006 ) and oxidation resistance ( Gould et al., 2002 ). Anthocyanin biosynthesis is a branch of the flavonoid metabolic pathway, and a range of enzymes are responsible for the synthesis of anthocyanin ( Nie et al., 2015 ). The major enzymes

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Mason T. MacDonald, Rajasekaran R. Lada, Jeff Hoyle, and A. Robin Robinson

have also found that Ambiol is very effective at promoting drought tolerance in tomato seedlings and have focused on understanding the regulatory pathway of Ambiol. MacDonald et al. (2008 , 2009) reported that preconditioning with 10 mg·L −1 Ambiol

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Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

. Recessive epistasis of the O locus over the M reflected the biochemical pathway for anthocyanin biosynthesis ( Kamemoto et al., 1988 ). Based on the genetic model of Kamemoto et al. (1988) , MmOo, MmOO, MMOo, and MMOO produced red-spathed (red and pink