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Laura Rodriguez-Uribe, Luz Hernandez, James P. Kilcrease, Stephanie Walker, and Mary A. O’Connell

carotenoid pathways. Genetic diversity in landraces of Capsicum in Mexico ( Aguilar-Melendez et al., 2009 ; Gonzalez-Jara et al., 2011 ; Pacheco-Olvera et al., 2012 ) and in Capsicum in home gardens in Guatemala ( Guzman et al., 2005 ) has been

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Mengyang Liu, Yin Lu, Shan Wang, Fang Wu, Jingrui Li, Yanhua Wang, Jianjun Zhao, and Shuxing Shen

Leaf color is largely the result of photosynthetic pigments, primarily chlorophyll (Chl). Chl plays an essential role in light absorption for energy transfer ( Stern et al., 2004 ). The Chl biosynthesis pathway is complex and involves more than 20

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Xiaoying Dou, Jinrong Bai, Huan Wang, Ying Kong, Lixin Lang, Fang Bao, and Hongzhong Shang

( Grotewold, 2006 ) and oxidation resistance ( Gould et al., 2002 ). Anthocyanin biosynthesis is a branch of the flavonoid metabolic pathway, and a range of enzymes are responsible for the synthesis of anthocyanin ( Nie et al., 2015 ). The major enzymes

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Mason T. MacDonald, Rajasekaran R. Lada, Jeff Hoyle, and A. Robin Robinson

have also found that Ambiol is very effective at promoting drought tolerance in tomato seedlings and have focused on understanding the regulatory pathway of Ambiol. MacDonald et al. (2008 , 2009) reported that preconditioning with 10 mg·L −1 Ambiol

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Xiaohua Yang, Susan K. Brown, and Peter J. Davies

the GA signaling pathway ( Sponsel and Hedden, 2010 ). Six endogenous DELLA proteins were identified in apple ( Foster et al., 2007 ) and there is a significant conservation of gene function between DELLA proteins from apple and arabidopsis

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Megan J. Bowman, David K. Willis, and Philipp W. Simon

Differential expression of genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway serves as a regulatory mechanism for carotenoid accumulation in diverse plant species such as tomato [ Solanum lycopersicum ( Fray and Grierson, 1993 ; Ronen et al., 2000

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Winston Elibox and Pathmanathan Umaharan

. Recessive epistasis of the O locus over the M reflected the biochemical pathway for anthocyanin biosynthesis ( Kamemoto et al., 1988 ). Based on the genetic model of Kamemoto et al. (1988) , MmOo, MmOO, MMOo, and MMOO produced red-spathed (red and pink

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Ann M. Callahan, Chris Dardick, and Ralph Scorza

digestibility. The recent interest in biofuels has sparked intense interest in lignin research, as large amounts of mostly inaccessible energy are stored in plants as lignin. This work has identified most of the genes for the major enzymes in the pathway and the

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Kazuya Koyama and Nami Goto-Yamamoto

the contents and composition in grape and wine ( Jackson, 2000a ). Each class of flavonoid, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols, is biosynthesized by a one-step enzyme reaction branched from the common flavonoid pathway ( Fig. 1 ). Flavonoid 3

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou, and Yuncong Yao

-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), and ent-kaurene synthase (KS), catalyze the early step(s) of the cyclization and oxidation reactions and affect the GA signal pathway, regulating plant growth phenotype ( Fambrini et al., 2011 ; Toyomasu et al., 2016 ; Yamamura et